Factors Influencing Fan Acceptance or Rejection of a Sport Team’s Revolutionary Rebrand
Using the context of the Washington Football Team, the current study examined the importance of six brand associations (team colors, community integration, culture/traditions, nickname, logo, uniform style) on fan attitudes toward a revolutionary rebrand. Data were collected from 669 Washington Football Team fans through an online questionnaire. A rating-based conjoint analysis was used to test for the relative influence of each brand association on brand desirability and rejection. Separate analyses were conducted based on respondent geographic location, existing attitudes toward the name change, and level of passion for the team. Across all analyses, team color scheme was at least three times more important than any other association. Findings suggest respondents are more likely to view the revolutionary rebrand favorably if the team keeps its existing color scheme. Conversely, brand friction is likely to occur should the color scheme change, as fans continue to wear merchandise associated with the brand prerevolution.
Which Fantasy Sports Players Will Bet on Sports? A Trait-Based Predictive Model of Fantasy Sport Players Engaging in Sports Betting
Fantasy sports is a favorite form of sports consumption, and sports betting is becoming increasingly more popular and accessible. Following the recent Supreme Court decision concerning legalization, many fantasy sports operators are now incorporating sports betting into their platforms to capitalize on this opportunity. However, little research examines the motivations behind why some fantasy players bet on sports while others do not. Using a trait-based model, we investigate the likelihood that fantasy sports players would also engage in sports betting, revealing that traits are predictive of sports betting behavior. Given that traits are not readily observable or easily accessible, a proxy model incorporating commonly available demographic variables is also specified and estimated. Support for our proxy model is found in the widely used proxy means test devised to identify and target those eligible for social programs. As a result, this research is both theoretically driven and actionable.
Determinants of Subscription Renewal Behavior in Sport Spectatorship Services: A CHAID Decision Tree Modeling Approach
Attempts were made to identify the prioritized determinants of season ticket holders’ (STHs) renewal behavior. Also, grounded in the lens of luxury fever, we explored how the determinants are differently weighed and processed across two types of STHs, including regular (R-STHs) vs. premium seat holders (P-STHs). Through a partnership with a Big Ten athletic department, the attendance data were obtained and analyzed. This study adapted a decision tree modeling approach to predict renewal/churning behavior by setting learning decision rules in the CHAID algorithm, a supervised learning algorithm family. Results of this study indicate that discounted tickets, affordability, and entertainment were important determinants for R-STHs. By contrast, tenure as a ticket holder, game outcomes, and business use were significantly weighed for P-STHs. Recent attendance and exclusive benefits were important branches for both decision trees. Th is research expands the understanding of the subscription-based services industry by applying a fresh data mining approach.
Effects of Commitment to CSR-Linked Sport Sponsorship on Consumers’ Fit Perception, Attitude toward Sponsor, and Word-of-Mouth Intention
Corporate social responsibility (CSR)-linked sport sponsorships attract attention from sport marketing professionals and scholars alike. Th e purpose of this research was to examine how the effectiveness of a CSR-linked sponsorship varies depending upon the sponsor’s commitment to the CSR program. Th e results of our experiment showed that a CSR-linked sponsorship could hurt consumers’ fi t perception if the sponsor shows only minimum commitment to the cause. We also found that a CSR-linked sponsorship is more effective than a standard sponsorship in inducing consumers’ positive attitudes toward the sponsor and word-of-mouth intentions only if the sponsor is strongly committed to the CSR program. Finally, our mediation analysis revealed that strong commitment to the CSR-linked sponsorship indirectly increases consumers’ word-of mouth intentions through enhanced fi t perception and attitude toward the sponsor. Therefore, sports organizations and their sponsors should incorporate CSR into their sponsorship only if they can be strongly committed to the program.
Political Identity, Risk Perception, and Sport Participation: Conditional Process Analysis of Golfers’ Revisit Intent During the COVID Pandemic
The COVID-19 pandemic has been highly politicized in the US. Th is study explored the effect of individuals’ political orientation on the relationship between their risk assessments of COVID-19 and intentions to revisit the golf course. A first-stage moderated mediation model consisting of general risk awareness of COVID-19, perceived risk of playing golf, and revisit intention was introduced to specify when and how political orientation influences an individual’s decision to play golf again. Recreational golfers (N = 199) from a survey panel took part in the study, and results showed that risk awareness of COVID-19 increases the perceived risk of playing golf while suppressing one’s intention to revisit the golf course during the pandemic. However, political orientation moderated the suppressant effect of risk awareness on revisit intent in that only Democrats showed negative effect on revisit intent while Republicans did not show any significant relationship. Findings are discussed in the context of a dual process model of political identity, and the implications for practice as well as future research are presented.
Aggressive Motives and Fan Passion Across Different Types of Sports
On-field aggression can attract and entertain sport consumers. However, the promotion of aggression in sport has been controversial, as societal shift s raise questions about how much aggression in sport is appropriate. Therefore, this study seeks to better understand the relationship between on-fi eld aggression and fandom by examining how two motives (physical aggression and violence) predict sport fan passion for three categories of sports (limited-contact, full-contact, and combat). An online questionnaire was utilized to solicit responses from 540 adult sports fans. Overall, results of this study showed consumers’ physical aggression motive influenced sport fan passion for low-contact and full-contact sports except for ice-hockey. However, consumers’ violence motive influenced combat sport passion (i.e., boxing, MMA). Results inform marketers how aggression motivates consumers and how to market this type of content across different sports.