Sports Marketing Quarterly

Issue 32:1 – March, 2023

Articles in this Issue

Predicting Ticket Holder No-Shows: Examining Differences Between Reported and Actual Attendance at College Football Games

Nels Popp, Jason Simmons, Stephen L. Shapiro and Nick Watanabe

Reported attendance for most sport events is based on tickets disseminated, not actual number of spectators who physically enter the venue. Yet nearly all live sport event demand studies are based on reported attendance rather than the actual attendance. The current study examines multiple measures of home game attendance for NCAA Division I college football programs as reported from both game box scores and post-event scanned ticket audits provided to The Wall Street Journal. Regression models are utilized to examine factors that have a statistically significant relationship with three different measures of attendance: (a) reported attendance, (b) actual attendance, and (c) total number of ticket holder no-shows. Several independent variables, included demographic factors, measures of game attractiveness, and residual preferences, demonstrated such relationships with each measure of attendance when examining ticket usage data from 595 game dates during the 2017 season.


Visual Congruity in Jersey Sponsorship: The Effect of Created Brand-Color Congruity on Attitude toward Sponsor

Sung Wook (Sean) Son and Antonio Williams

Despite its rapid growth and the forecast for its ubiquity, an academic investigation into jersey sponsorship is still limited. More importantly, although jersey sponsors today create visual congruity by modifying their logo colors on the jerseys to match the team colors, its role and impact remain unexplored. Thus, the current research examined the effect of created brand-color congruity on attitude toward the sponsor, paying particular attention to perceived sponsor support and team identification. Three experiments across two different league settings showed that created brand-color congruity was a significant predictor for both favorable sponsor attitudes and perceived sponsor support at all levels of team identification. Perceived sponsor support also positively influenced attitudes, confirming the indirect effect of created brand-color congruity. The findings provide theoretical and practical contributions to the marketing and sponsorship literature by signifying the importance of created visual congruity using brand colors.


Using Experiments in Sport Consumer Behavior Research: A Review and Directions for Future Research

Yong Jae Ko, Dae Hee Kwak, Eric Wonseok Jang, Joon Sung Lee, Akira Asada, Yonghwan Chang, Daehwan Kim, Sean Pradhan and Semih Yilmaz

A growing number of sport consumer behavior scholars have been employing experimental methods, especially because experiments allow researchers to gain a better understanding of causal inferences by examining controlled conditions. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to offer the current state of the adoption of experimental methods in sport consumer behavior research and (2) to discuss and highlight best practices that scholars can use when considering experimental designs. More specifically, we discuss methodological gaps existing in sport consumer behavior research by reviewing published sport consumer behavior articles in a content analysis. We also provide considerations to improve validity of empirical findings and outline the characteristics of well-designed experiments and how they can help advance theory development in the field. Ultimately, we offer practical recommendations and guidance to researchers wishing to use experiments in a wide array of research topics within sport consumer behavior.


Assessing Returns from New Sport Marketing Opportunities: The Case of NBA Jersey Sponsorships

Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian R. Walkup and Adrien Bouchet

One of the newest opportunities available to sport marketing decision-makers is branding on the game-worn jerseys of teams competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Given the novelty of this opportunity, research on the returns marketers may receive from such investments is scarce. This study applies the event study methodology to measure shareholder reaction to the announcements of NBA jersey sponsorships utilizing multiple financial models and event windows, with results indicating abnormal and positive return on investment (ROI). Reflective of signaling theory, the market’s reaction to announcements involving tech firms was more positive, and as expected based on the theoretical lens of agency theory, the reaction for firms with regional proximity was muted. Given that the NBA is one of several leagues that will be providing brand integration on game-worn jerseys, this study’s findings have important managerial implications for brand marketers planning investments in such opportunities.


The Effects of Self-Brand Connection and Self-Construal on Consumers’ Psychological and Behavioral Responses to Athlete Scandals

Akiko Arai, Yong Jae Ko, Akira Asada and Daniel Connaughton

Athlete scandals are of broad and current interest in the sport industry and literature. Based on brand relationship theory, the present research, consisting of Studies 1 and 2, concerns the effects of consumers’ self-brand connection to an athlete and their self-construal on their psychological and behavioral responses to an athlete scandal. The results of Study 1 (experiment) suggest that people with a strong self-connection to the athlete and interdependent self-construal experience a greater self-identity threat than people lacking these attributes. Study 2 (survey) reveals that people with a strong self-connection and interdependent self-construal are more likely to advocate for an athlete after a scandal. The results imply that some people maintain their support for an athlete involved in a scandal not necessarily because they are not influenced by scandal information but because they want to protect and restore their threatened self-worth.


An Analysis of Research Methods in Leading Sport Marketing Journals: A Call for Historical Research

Dylan Williams, Patrick Tutka and Chad Seifried

General marketing scholars have advocated for historical research since the 1980s, leading to a substantial increase in history-based marketing articles. With general marketing embracing historical research, the present content analysis assesses leading sport marketing journals, their article methodologies, and the presence of any studies that utilize the historical method and/or incorporate historical or archival data for analysis. Comparatively, the present study shows sport marketing scholars primarily analyze the field through pure monomethod (i.e., quantitative or qualitative) approaches, but many researchers also use historical or archival data. With recent calls to improve sport-study through diversifying methodological choices, we suggest the historical method should be an attractive interdisciplinary alternative because it offers a distinct data collection and analytical approach capable of studying important questions. Further, historical research can advance theory, predict future patterns or trends, inform decision-making processes, and identify future research activity. Overall, we see an opportunity for more history-based scholarship in sport marketing journals.