Contents for SMQ Issue 30:3
|Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 30, No. 3, September 2021.
|An Examination of Partitioned Pricing and the Influence of Culture and Familiarity on Sport Consumer Behavior
Authors: Misun Won and Stephen L. Shapiro
|Abstract: Prior research has examined consumer behavior toward partitioned pricing in various capacities, including types and number of surcharges and the use of dollars versus percentages. Given the fact partitioned pricing is not employed in every country, this investigation focused on consumer behavior toward this pricing strategy based on familiarity with partitioned pricing and cultural differences. An experimental design was implemented to examine South Korean and US sport consumers’ attitudes and behaviors related to ticket prices for a mega-sporting event. The findings showed all-inclusive pricing, in general, is preferred and culture does not significantly impact consumer behavior in this context. Additionally, familiarity moderated the relationship between cultural differences and consumer behavior. Consumers who were familiar with partitioned pricing were more attracted to partitioned pricing ticket offers and had higher purchase intentions compared to consumers who were less familiar with the practice. Implications of these findings are discussed along with directions for future research.
|The Effect of Advertising on Sales and Brand Equity in Small Sport Businesses
Authors: Ted Hayduk and Matthew Walker
|Abstract: Work in relationship marketing (RM) has implied that most large sport properties fail to enact sport relationship marketing (SRM) tactics that establish meaningful connections with consumers. Work in entrepreneurial marketing (EM) suggests that small businesses must innovate to implement elements of EM due to inherent resource constraints. Therefore, exploring SRM in an entrepreneurial, innovation-dependent context like small sport businesses (SSBs) may help explain why large sport fi rms struggle with SRM. Therefore, we examined whether SSBs’ marketing activities are generative of RM-specific outcomes and attempted to identify when and how these relationships can be augmented. Results from a dynamic panel estimator carried out on a sample of 332 SSBs over a 22-year span indicate that SSBs accrue only some of the benefits to be expected in the presence of successful SRM, highlighting the need to understand why sport properties of all sizes struggle to build meaningful relationships.
|Investigation of eSports Playing Intention Formation: The Moderating Impact of Gender
Authors: Wooyoung (William) Jang and Kevin K. Byon
|Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the gender differences in the formation of esports gameplay intention. To this end, the determinants and esports gameplay intention were adopted from the Esports Consumption Model (ESC; Jang & Byon, 2020a). A total of 498 respondents (male = 54.2%; female = 45.8%) who were adults and had experienced esports gameplay responded to the online survey. We examined the measurement invariance to examine if the constructs were being measured equivalently across gender. Also, we tested for structural invariance to examine if causal relationships exist the same way across gender. Th e results indicated that gender differences exist in the paths between hedonic motivation, habit, social influence, and esports gameplay intention. The findings and implications were discussed theoretically and practically, and suggestions were made regarding future studies aimed at overcoming the limitations of the current study.
|A Run for Their Money: Examining Changes in Runners’ Event-Related Expenditures
Authors: Colin Lopez, Koo Yul Kim, Joris Drayer, and Jeremy Scott Jordan
|Abstract: This study examines spending changes between the first and second year of participation in a mass participation sport event. Previous research has been inconclusive about anticipated spending changes from year one to year two, which may be attributed to the prominence of cross-sectional research designs. This study utilized a within-person, year-to-year design with a seven-year sample from a US running event (n = 247) to track spending from participants. Using a within-subject ANCOVA, expenditures across eight categories were analyzed as individuals progressed from first-time to repeat participant. Results show no significant differences across any of the spending categories. From the same time frame, a sample of one-off participants was generated (n = 6,257) to compare with the repeat participants, and significant differences emerged. These findings provide event organizers and community officials with information regarding the spending behavior of customers in their first and second years, allowing for a more tailored marketing approach.
|Applying the Customer-Centric Model to the Investigation of Brand Communities of Professional Sports Teams
Authors: JAnat Toder Alon and Avichai Shuv-Ami
|Abstract: This study employs the customer-centric model of brand communities (including fan-fan, fan-management, fan-team, and fan-product relationships) to examine sports fans through the two lenses of team identification and fan loyalty and explore the effect of these constructs on fans’ behavior. The study used an online panel-based survey to collect data from 742 football fans. Also, the study utilized exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and nomological network analysis to establish the validity and reliability of a new scale of fan-centric relationships of team sports clubs (TSCs). Utilizing structural equation modelling, it was demonstrated that all four levels of fan relationships significantly predicted both team identification and fan loyalty. Furthermore, both team identification and fan loyalty significantly predicted intention to attend games. Identifying and classifying the different levels of fan-centric relationships may provide TSCs with the potential to strengthen fans’ identification with and loyalty to the team and, consequently, increase consumption.
|Sequential Effects of Indirect, Direct, and Virtual Sport Experiences on Consumer Learning
Authors: Yongjae Kim, Seungbum Lee, and Younghan Lee
|Abstract: The purpose of this study is to expand the theoretical knowledge of consumer learning by testing both the single and sequential effects of indirect, direct, and virtual sport experiences on sport brand knowledge, attitudes, and choice behavior in two laboratory experiments. Experiment I shows that virtual experience is as effective as direct experience in consumer learning. In Experiment II, designed to explore the impact of sequential combinations of sport experiences on consumer learning, the sequential combination of direct and virtual experiences results in greater brand knowledge than the combination of indirect and direct experiences. Exposure to direct experience proceeding with virtual experience is more effective at influencing brand attitudes than the combination of indirect and direct experiences. Th e results indicate that sport consumers are more likely to select sport brands at choice contexts when exposed to virtual experience in combination with direct experience.