Contents for SMQ Issue 29:3
|Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 29, No. 3, September 2020.
|A Gratification Model of Sport Team Mobile Application Usage
Authors: Hansol Hwang, Hyejoo Yang, Antonio S. Williams and Paul M. Pedersen
|Abstract: The purpose of this study w as to develop a g ratification model to encompass the motivations and us age patterns involved with sport team mobile apps. The hypotheses were tested by a structural equation modeling with single-group and multiple-group (i.e., age and gender) levels. The results indicated that of the 11 motivational factors, seven (i.e., Information Seeking, Convenience, Economic Incentives, Entertainment, Fantasy, Curiosity, and Parasocial) directly influenced Continuance Intention. The findings also revealed some moderating effects—exerting the relationship between motivations and continuance intention—by gender and age. Moreover, as many sport scholars (e.g., Robinson & Trail, 2005) have pointed out the different motivational drivers between different leagues (e.g., National Football League vs. Major League Soccer), a multiple-group factor analysis in the current study also demonstrated that there were significant mean differences among the two groups. The study results shed light on what specific gratifications (i.e., utilitarian, hedonic, and social) users obtain via sport team mobile apps by conducting a first-second factor analysis—integrating a hierarchical concept of sport team app motivations. Overall, the model of sport team mobile apps proposed in this study can be used by sport marketing professionals to assist in enhancing more customer-oriented information systems (IS) for increased sport media consumption.
|An Analysis of Attributes Impacting Consumer Online Sport Ticket Purchases in a Dual-Market Environment
Authors: Nels Popp, Jason Simmons, Stephen L. Shapiro, T. Christopher Greenwell and Chad D. McEvoy
|Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to examine the attributes most influential in consumers’ online ticket buying experiences. Using conjoint analysis, eight scenario profiles were created in order to gauge fan preferences when purchasing sport event tickets online. Attributes included (a) timing of ticket purchase, (b) seating availability, (c) price fluctuations, (d) associated fees, (e) number of pricepoints, (f) fraud risk, and (g) price valuation assessment. Data were collected from 469 attendees at a major sport event and part worths for each attribute were calculated to determine which factors held greater importance when all seven were considered concurrently. For the sample overall, results indicated the risk of buying fraudulent tickets was far and away the most influential aspect consumers consider when purchasing sport event tickets online. Comparisons were also made based on whether tickets were purchased from the primary or secondary market, the price paid for the tickets, and the timing of ticket purchase. Results indicated consumer segmentation by these criteria result in distinct buyer profiles.
|Examining the Impact of Fantasy Sport Participation and Fan Identification on Player Performance and Brand Image Perceptions
Authors: Benjamin Larkin, Ryan Spalding and Taesoo Ahn
|Abstract: Along with the growth of fantasy sport has come a slew of research on how participation in the activity affects traditional fan behavior. The current study extends this line of literature by investigating how participation in fantasy sport impacts fans’ perceptions of players. Specifically, through an application of cognitive miser theory, we argue that fantasy sport participants, as well as highly identified fans, are susceptible to a fantasy judgment bias, wherein players are assessed more from the perspective of their fantasy sport performance than actual on-field performance. Using MANCOVA on fan survey responses concerning two recent NFL players, we show that this bias exists and that it impacts the brand associations fans make with regard to athletes as well as their purchase intentions toward these athletes. Finally, SEM was used to investigate which fantasy sport participation motives are most salient to the existence of the phenomenon.
|Fantasy Sport Usage and Multiplatform Sport Media Consumption Behaviors
Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted and Dae Hee Kwak
|Abstract: Previous research suggests that fantasy sport users are avid sport fans and therefore consume more content from media. With a rapidly changing media environment and consumers’ viewing habits, this study sought to investigate the role of playing fantasy sport on sport media consumption across both traditional and new media platforms as well as the type of social media usage before, during, and after the sporting event. Data from a national consumer panel representative of the US adult population (N = 615) showed that fantasy sport consumption enhances the level of media consumption across platforms in general, except for legacy media such as television and newspaper. Research further showed that Twitter, YouTube, and website/blog use before, during, and after the event are robust predictors of fantasy sport consumption while Facebook use is not associated with fantasy sport consumption at all.
|The Influence of Personal Tendencies, Situational Power State, and Social Exclusion on Distinctive Consumption Choice
Authors: Hyunwoo Kim, Byungik Park, Choonghoon Lim and Jisuk Chang
|Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of power state, level of social exclusion, and the individual characteristic of need for uniqueness on consumption choice between viewing Major League Baseball (distinctive option) and the South Korean baseball league (general option) as well as viewing attitudes toward the general option. Binary logistic regression and 2 (power state: high vs. low) x 2 (social state: inclusion vs. exclusion) x 3 (NFU: high vs. medium vs. low) ANOVA were used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that first, the need for uniqueness (NFU) influenced the distinctive choice. Second, power states affected the distinctive choice of consumers. Third, individual levels of social exclusion did not yield significant results. Additionally, the interaction effect between power state and social state as well as the interaction effect between power state and the three levels of NFU were significant.
|The Dark Side of Spectator Behavior: Effects of Spectator Dysfunctional Behavior on Anger, Rumination, and Revisit Intention
Authors: Kyungyeol Anthony Kim and Kevin K. Byon
|Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the negative effects of spectator dysfunctional behavior (SDB) on other spectators’ anger, rumination, and revisit intention. More specifically, in Study 1, we show that SDB (vs. spectator normal behavior [SNB]) elicited other spectators’ anger and reduced revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between SDB (vs. SNB) and revisit intention. The negative effects of SDB and anger on revisit intention became positive as team identification increased. In Study 2, we demonstrate that rumination regarding SDB incidents evoked focal spectators’ anger and decreased revisit intention. Anger significantly mediated the relationship between rumination and revisit intention. Furthermore, the negative effects of rumination and anger on revisit intention were more significantly reduced in a high-level team identification group than in a low-level of team identification counterpart. Overall, the current work makes contributions to the sport management literature by shedding light on the dark side of sport spectatorship.