Contents for SMQ Issue 27:4
|Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 27, No. 4, December 2018.
|Guest Editor’s Introduction: Experimental Research in Sport Consumer Behavior
Authors: Yong Jae Ko and Joon Sung Lee
|Abstract: Sport consumer behavior has become a popular research domain in the field of sport marketing. Over the last decade, scholars have made tremendous efforts to develop a clearer understanding of the nature of sport-related experiences, needs and wants, and the benefits sport consumers derive from such experiences (Funk, Lock, Karg, & Pritchard, 2016). Although these efforts have contributed to describing key characteristics of sport consumers, (re)defining research constructs, and exploring the relationships between key constructs in sport consumer behavior research, scholars have predominately relied on cross-sectional studies and surveys, which limit our theoretical understanding of the decision making process of sport consumers (Funk, Mahony, & Havitz, 2003; Ko et al., 2017). In their symposium discussion at the 2017 North American Society for Sport Management conference, Ko et al. discussed a need for utilizing more rigorous tactics of experimental research designs to establish causal explanations of sport consumption, and thus, develop and expand theories associated with sport consumer behavior.
|The Effectiveness of Advertising Embedded in Televised Sport Programming: How Team Performance Influences de Formation
Authors: Minkyo Lee, Robert F. Potter, Choong Hoon Lim and Paul M. Pederson
|Abstract: The present study investigated the effect of emotions derived from the unique nature of spectator sport (e.g., uncertainty about outcomes) on sport fans’ responses to advertisements presented in a sport broadcasting context. In order to test the study’s hypotheses, a repeated measures design (i.e., program-induced valence  × program-induced arousal  × ad valence ) was employed. As hypothesized, the affective reactions to game outcomes (i.e., a win or a loss) had significant carry-over effects on the evaluative judgments to commercials. The findings enrich our understanding of how sport fans process information relating to televised commercials during sporting events. Furthermore, the results relate to the possible ways in which sport advertising influences consumers’ attitudes and thus the findings are of benefit to practitioners (e.g., sport team sponsors, sporting event advertisers) as well as scholars (e.g., sport marketing researchers).
|The Impact of Brand-Event Fit in Virtual Advertising on Sport Television Viewers’ Brand Attitudes
Authors: Sangchul Park and Yuhei Inou
|Abstract: When virtual advertising is inserted into a sport broadcast, viewers are simultaneously exposed to both a sport event and an advertised brand. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the perceived fit between a sport event and an advertised brand in virtual advertising affects viewers’ attitudes toward the advertised brand. Sport viewer confusion and event suspense were also examined, as a mediator and moderator, respectively, for the relationship between perceived fit and brand attitude. Participants (N = 131) took part in an experiment in which perceived fit and event suspense were manipulated using animated virtual advertising and video clips of Korean professional baseball broadcasts. Results showed that perceived fit in virtual advertising positively influenced brand attitude and this effect was mediated by reduced levels of sport viewer confusion. However, no moderating effect of event suspense was detected. Considering these findings, implications for theory and practice are discussed.
|The Impact of Gender Expression on Female Athlete Endorser Effectiveness
Authors: Heidi M. Parker, Michael T. Mudrick and Janet S. Fink
|Abstract: Grounded in associative learning theory and the match-up hypothesis, this study sought to determine how female athlete endorsers’ gender expression impacted perceptions of their effectiveness and endorser-product fit. A 2 (feminine/masculine characteristics) x 2 (feminine/masculine product) experimental design was conducted with 205 participants from two universities in the Northeast region of the United States. Hypotheses were tested using MANCOVA and ANCOVA and results indicated gender expression significantly impacted measures of endorser attractiveness, explaining 23% of the variance. However, gender expression had no impact on measures of expertise or trustworthiness. Further, gender expression was not significant on measures of endorser-product fit. The findings are consistent with associative learning theory and the match-up hypothesis and suggest that female athlete endorsers can be effective when endorsing sport products regardless of their gender expression.
|Types of Brand Transgressions and Consumers’ Moral Reasoning Strategies on an Endorser
Authors: Youngjin Hur, Choong Hoon Lim, Dong-Chun Won and Sun-Yong Kwon
|Abstract: This study aims to examine the effects of types of brand transgressions and moral reasoning strategies (moral decoupling and moral rationalization) on consumers’ trustworthiness in and attitudes toward an athlete endorser when a brand company that sponsors the athlete commits transgressions. By using a professional research company, 440 individuals were recruited online. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) results reveal that consumers’ trustworthiness of and attitudes toward the endorser are likely to be lower for product transgressions than for moral transgressions. Higher levels of moral decoupling show significantly higher trustworthiness of and attitudes toward the endorser than the middle and lower levels do. To keep an endorser’s image positive, the endorser or his/her agency should carefully consider a sponsor’s history and reputation while selecting a sponsor.