Contents for SMQ Issue 25:4
Authors: Mark Nagel and Todd C. Koesters, Christopher Lee and Lynn Kahle, Bridget Satinover Nichols, Joe Cobbs and David Raska, Stephen L. Shapiro, Brendan Dwyer and Joris Drayer, Sarah Jane Kelly, Michael Ireland, John Mangan and Harley Williamson, Barbara Osborne
|Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 25, No. 4, December 2016.
|Industry Insider: Adam Lippard
Authors: Mark Nagel and Todd C. Koesters
|Abstract: An interview with Adam Lippard, head of Global Sports and Entertainment Consulting, GMR Marketing.
|The Linguistics of Social Media: Communication of Emotions and Values in Sport
Authors: Christopher Lee and Lynn Kahle
|Abstract: In spite of the prominence of social media within sport marketing and increased attention from researchers, very few studies have looked at the linguistic makeup of social media content in sport. The values and emotions a company tweets convey important information about brands and marketing efforts. The research used two studies to computationally analyze thousands of tweets from four baseball teams and four apparel companies. Results show unique relations between values and emotions across both baseball teams and apparel companies. As an example, Nike communicated the value sense of accomplishment—a positive value—significantly more than any other apparel brand, but it was also the least positive apparel brand from an emotional perspective. Additional results and future research directions for sport marketing researchers are discussed.
|Featuring the Hometown Team in Cause-Related Sports Marketing: A Cautionary Tale for League-Wide Advertising Campaigns
Authors: Bridget Satinover Nichols, Joe Cobbs and David Raska
|Abstract: This paper examines the role of league-cause fit, perceived sincerity, and intentions to support campaigns of league-wide cause-related sport marketing (CRSM). Using the context of the National Football League (NFL) and the tenets of schema theory and social identity theory, we demonstrate potential backlash effects of featuring “hometown” team imagery in league-wide CRSM campaigns. The results of three experiments suggest that while a cause perceived as high fit to the league (Wounded Warrior Project) may facilitate better overall response, fans exposed to campaign imagery featuring their hometown team view the CRSM efforts as less sincere, resulting in reduced support compared to campaign imagery featuring a rival or no team. In low-fit CRSM campaigns, team imagery has no effect. These results conflict with the current literature on CRSM and offer new guidance for sport administrators. Specifically, league-wide CRSM campaigns are best presented in the neutral context, without specific team imagery.
|Examining the Role of Price Fairness in Sport Consumer Ticket Purchase Decisions
Authors: Stephen L. Shapiro, Brendan Dwyer and Joris Drayer
|Abstract: Ticket pricing in professional sports is transitioning from a cost-based to demand-based approach. It has been argued that consumer perceptions of fairness regarding demand-based ticket pricing could influence purchase decisions. Perceptions of unfair pricing practices can lead to dissatisfaction and negatively affect purchase behavior. However, familiarity with demand-based pricing strategies could mitigate perceptions that real-time price fluctuations are unfair to the consumer. Guided by transaction utility theory, the current study examined the relationship between various ticket offers, consumer perceptions of fairness, familiarity, and intentions to purchase professional sports tickets. The findings support previous theory suggesting perceptions of fairness and purchase intentions differ based on specific transaction conditions. Source of the ticket, reference price, and familiarity played a role in these perceptions. This study extends the body of knowledge in sport consumer behavior by highlighting the value of fairness perceptions, familiarity, reference price, source of the ticket, and the use of price as a marketing tool.
|It Works Two Ways: Impacts of Sponsorship Alliance upon Sport and Sponsor Image
Authors: Sarah Jane Kelly, Michael Ireland, John Mangan and Harley Williamson
|Abstract: Determining the impact of sport sponsorship by alcohol companies has been identified as a priority research concern (World Health Organization, 2014). Despite the vast investment and potential risks, there is almost no sport sponsorship-specific research examining how the choice and behavior of one sponsorship partner affects consumer attitude toward the other partner. We test this relationship, focusing upon the controversial alcohol-sport sponsorship pairing, given its importance to sport management and policy. The findings of these robust experimental results provide the first evidence that sponsorship pairing affects brand attitudes of both the sport and commercial partner. Implications for best practice sport sponsorship management in an increasingly controversial alcohol sponsorship environment are discussed.
|Athletes’ Right of Publicity in Game Performances and Sports Broadcasting
Authors: Barbara Osborne
|Abstract: At the intersection of personal branding and capitalism is the legal concept of a right of publicity. Since the Supreme Court first recognized this right in Zacchini v. Scripps-Howard Broadcasting Company in 1977, it is commonly assumed that individuals have a legal interest in protecting their name, image, and likeness from unauthorized commercial use. However, it is important to note there is no common law or statutory right of publicity on the federal level—this is a matter determined by state law. The common law right of publicity (based on decisions of the various state courts) is rooted in both tort and property law; statutory protection also varies tremendously across states. The legal theory underlying the right of publicity is to “provide incentives to encourage a person’s productive activities and to protect consumers from misleading advertising” (C.B.C. Distribution & Marketing, Inc. v. Major League Baseball Advanced Media, L.P., 2007, p. 824). A recently decided case, Dryer v. National Football League (2016), addresses right of publicity claims of former professional football players in archival television footage of live game performances. Television and media rights are one of the largest sources of revenue in the sport industry. The Dryer case is important as it provides clarity and instruction for media and sport marketing professionals (as well as athletes) relative to the right of publicity for sports broadcasts and explains the federal laws that preempt those claimed rights.