Contents for SMQ Issue 25:2
Authors: Mark Nagel, Henry Wear, Bob Heere and Aaron Clopton, Nancy L. Lough, Jennifer R. Pharr and Andrea Guerin, Haylee Uecker Mercado and Matthew J. Bernthal, Patrick J. Rishe, David Sanders, Jason Reese, and Michael Mondello, Thomas A. Baker III and Natasha T. Brison
|Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 25, No. 2, June 2016.
|Industry Insider: Joyce Caron-Mercier
Authors: Mark Nagel
|Abstract: An interview with Joyce Caron-Mercier, vice president of The Specialized Marketing Group.
|Are They Wearing Their Pride on Their Sleeve? Examining the Impact of Team and University Identity upon Brand Equity
Authors: Henry Wear, Bob Heere and Aaron Clopton
|Abstract: This study examined the effectiveness of sportswear companies’ sponsorship of intercollegiate athletic departments, and the subsequent effects on the students of the university. The value of these sponsorship contracts has grown exponentially, with new contracts averaging $6 million a year per institution (Kish, 2014). However, little research has been devoted to the impact of the relationship between sportswear brands and university students, and it is uncertain what the return on investment of these sponsorships are to the apparel companies, other than media exposure. To examine how effective these sponsorships were, the researchers asked students about their identification with a college basketball team, the university itself, and conducted a linear regression analysis to understand the effect of these identification processes on the brand equity of the sportswear sponsor. Results were not statistically significant, signifying that team and university identification did not impact sportswear brand equity.
|I Am Bolder: A Social Cognitive Examination of Road Race Participant Behavior
Authors: Nancy L. Lough, Jennifer R. Pharr and Andrea Guerin
|Abstract: Sport participants have an economic value up to four times higher than that of sport spectators in the United States according to Kim, Smith, and James (2010). One participatory sport that has experienced tremendous growth in participation numbers worldwide since the mid-1990s is road racing. Road race event organizers currently face increased competition with each other to attract participants. Therefore the purpose of the study was to better understand the core determinants (or factors) believed to influence the behavior of road race participation. Advancing our understanding will assist sport managers in differentiating their events from competitors and increasing participation numbers in an increasingly crowded marketplace. Using Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), the authors qualitatively examined participant narratives about their participation in the BolderBOULDER 10K, an annual road race hosted in Boulder, Colorado. Four major themes emerged from the narratives: family, health, the event experience, and empowerment. While some themes were consistent with previous findings, family and the event experience differed from previous sport marketing findings. Furthermore, these findings suggested that a participatory sporting event organizer’s ability to understand what drives participants’ behavior to run the race year after year may be key for event differentiation. Additional analysis relating to the SCT is presented, and implications and future research ideas are provided.
|Hispanic Subcultural Sport Socialization: An Initial Investigation
Authors: Haylee Uecker Mercado and Matthew J. Bernthal
|Abstract: This research is an initial exploration of how members of one Hispanic subculture (Cuban Americans) were socialized into sport participation and spectating across multiple generations. Through 16 in-depth interviews with Cuban Americans across three generations, the researchers explored Cuban Americans’ values relative to sport and identified socialization agents that were the primary contributors to their socialization into sport. It was confirmed that family plays a primary role in sport socialization for this subculture. We also found the presence of retroactive socialization—a child socializing the parent/grandparent into sport—and suggest that neither school nor sport coaches are key socializing agents for this particular subculture. We also determined there were differences in sport socialization across generations.
|A Heterogeneous Analysis of Secondary Market Transactions at College Football Bowl Games
Authors: Patrick J. Rishe, David Sanders, Jason Reese and Michael Mondello
|Abstract: In a seminal investigation of secondary pricing for college football bowl games, Rishe, Reese, and Boyle (2015) found Rose Bowl administrators price their face values in the inelastic range of consumer demand, and factors such as pent-up demand, distance traveled, and perceived seat quality impacted the size of secondary markups. Their study, however, lacked a breadth of application because it only focused on two bowl games occurring at the same venue and city. Conversely, this paper uses 9,413 transactions through TicketCity reflecting secondary ticket sales across 55 different bowl games from the 2013-14 and 2014-15 seasons. Subsequently, this heterogeneous sample reveals (1) not all bowl games price their tickets in the inelastic range of demand, perhaps attributable to uncertainty from lags between when face prices are set and when the teams competing are selected, (2) the introduction of the new College Football Playoff (for the Football Bowl Subdivision) format reduced markups for playoff games, perhaps because fans of playoff teams now must travel twice during the bowl season (as opposed to once under the old format in 2013-14), and (3) seat quality and distance traveled (consistent with Alchian-Allen theory) continue to significantly impact secondary market transactions for postseason college football.
|Boiler Plate Inked: Copyright Actions Brought by Tattooists Threaten Athlete Endorser Publicity Rights
Authors: Thomas A. Baker III and Natasha T. Brison
|Abstract: Originality is “[t]he sine qua non of copyright” (Feist Publications, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Ser. Co., 1991, p. 345), meaning without originality there is no copyright. Yet, what if original work capable of copyright protection existed on the bodies of celebrity athletes? Should courts use copyright law to protect the copyright owner at the expense of the athletes’ right to control the commercial use of their own bodies? These are the issues presented in Solid Oak Sketches, LLC v. Take- Two Interactive Software, Inc., (2016), a copyright action brought by tattooists against video game producers concerning ownership of original tattoos featured in sport video games. The tattoos at issue in Solid Oak Sketches are on the bodies of NBA stars LeBron James, Kobe Bryant, Kenyon Martin, DeAndre Jordan, and Eric Bledsoe.