Contents for SMQ Issue 22:4
Authors: Seunghwan Lee, Bob Heere, Kyu-soo Chung, John Grady, Mark S. Nagel, Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, Donghun Lee, Cody T. Havard, Daniel L. Wann, Timothy D. Ryan, Patrick Walsh, Galen Clavio, M. David Lovell, Matthew Blaszka, Aron Levin, Joe Cobbs, Fred Beasley, Chris Manolis, Steve McKelvey, Nancy L. Lough
|Abstract: This is the entire issue in PDF format that you can download.
|A Note from the SMA President, pp. 187-188
Authors: Nancy L. Lough
|Abstract: What an honor it is to serve as the President of the Sport Marketing Association! I am humbled to follow in the footsteps of the great scholars and visionaries who have led SMA to this unprecedented position. Without question many changes have occurred over the past 11 years. Coming off our successful conference in Albuquerque, it’s noteworthy to acknowledge our first female Veeck address honoree, Donna Orender. With an impressive career in sport extending over 17 years as an executive with the PGA, and six years as president of the WNBA, Donna is truly a game changer. Throughout her career, she navigated unchartered waters, blazing new innovate paths and solutions while building teams and belief systems around success. SMA attendees were treated to insight on how Donna is working to develop new consumer markets within the golf industry. As one of the top 10 Most Powerful Women in Sport and one of Newsweek’s 100 Most Influential People in Sport, Donna inspired the SMA membership on the opening night of the conference.
|Industry Insider: Derek Boyle, pp. 189-192
Authors: Steve McKelvey
|Abstract: The process whereby companies identify and engage athletes as endorsers has historically been a rather inexact science. The decision-making process has ranged from which athlete the CEO “would like to hang out with” to which athlete has a high level of awareness, likeability, and/or popularity. Typically, little emphasis has been placed on ensuring a meaningful “fit” between the company’s brand and the athlete’s brand. The emergence of analytics has, however, started to change this process. One company at the forefront of this paradigm shift is Sports Identity, a Boston-based athlete marketing firm that has recently launched a product called BrandMatch Score (BMS). In an effort to gain more insights into this changing landscape for selection of athlete endorsers, Vice President of Industry Affairs Steve McKelvey interviewed Sports Identity founder and president Derek Boyle, the creator of BrandMatch Score.
|Ad Nauseam? Sports Fans’ Acceptance of Commercial Messages During Televised Sporting Events, pp. 193-202
Authors: Aron Levin, Joe Cobbs, Fred Beasley, and Chris Manolis
|Abstract: Advertising, sponsorships, and other marketing communications are commonplace in the contemporary world of sports. Are sports fans irritated and annoyed by this commercial bombardment or are they accepting of the role of sports advertising? This study investigates consumers’ perceptions of commercial messages during televised sporting events. The results indicate that fans of two of the most popular US sports (NFL and NASCAR) generally have high levels of sport commercial acceptance (SCA) in televised broadcasts. NASCAR fans—particularly those highly identified with the sport—are the most tolerant of commercial messages. While older fans are more likely to be annoyed by commercial messages, women are more tolerant. To test the potential implication for sports marketers, the study also measured customers’ brand perceptions of Miller Lite beer—a prominent NFL and NASCAR advertiser. Beyond greater commercial acceptance, NASCAR fans who drink Miller Lite also demonstrated higher perceptions of brand equity and emotional attachment to Miller Lite compared to the brand’s customers who were NFL fans.
|Which Senses Matter More? The Impact of Our Senses on Team Identity and Team Loyalty, pp. 203-213
Authors: Seunghwan Lee, Bob Heere, and Kyu-soo Chung
|Differences in Event Brand Personality Between Social Media Users and Non-Users, pp. 214-223
Authors: Patrick Walsh, Galen Clavio, M. David Lovell, and Matthew Blaszka
|Abstract: Research on both brand personality and social media in sport is still in their respective developmental stages, and to date no research has examined the impact of social media use on sport brands. This study was the first to examine if differences exist in the brand personality of a sport event between those that use the events social media page and those that do not. After surveying fans of a major National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) event, the results revealed that eight of the nine brand personality items were rated significantly higher for users of the event’s Facebook page. This finding is significant as it is the first known empirical evidence which suggests that social media may have a positive impact on a sport brand’s image. These results provide a number of theoretical and practical implications and point to the need for further examination of social media branding effects.
|Investigating the Impact of Conference Realignment on Rivalry in Intercollegiate Athletics, pp. 224-234
Authors: Cody T. Havard, Daniel L. Wann, and Timothy D. Ryan
|Abstract: The current study quantitatively investigated how fan perceptions and willingness to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward participants of the rival teams differed between a rival in a current conference and an anticipated one in a new conference. A sample of 168 online fans of teams affected by conference realignment were administered a survey containing the Sport Rivalry Fan Perception Scale (SRFPS: Havard, Gray, Gould, Sharp, & Schaffer, 2013) and questions regarding willingness to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression (Wann, Haynes, McLean, & Pullen, 2003; Wann, Petersen, Cothran, & Dykes, 1999; Wann & Waddill, in press). Two-way MANOVA revealed significant differences existed regarding one SRFPS subscale, and ANOVA indicated that fans were more likely to consider committing anonymous acts of aggression toward participants of the current than anticipated rival team. Discussion centers on academic and sport marketing implications of the findings and potential areas for future research.
|Regaining Fans’ Trust After Negative Incidents: Fit between Responses and Nature of Incidents, pp. 235-245
Authors: Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, and Donghun Lee
|Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a fit between nature of negative incidents (competency-related vs. integrity-related) and response types (apology vs. denial) in recovering trust and inducing forgiveness in the sport context. It was hypothesized that there is an interaction between nature of incident and response types: Apology works better for competency-related incidents while denial has a better fit with integrity-related incidents. The pilot study was conducted with a hypothetical persona, and the results of MANOVA showed that there was no interaction, but main effect for response types: Apology was more effective for both violations. The main study was conducted with a real-life coach to see whether the results of pilot study were due to using a fictional character. The results of the main study showed that there was a main effect for the nature of the incident: Integrity-related incidents had more negative influence on trust regardless of the adopted response. The implications of the results were discussed.
|Keep Calm and Johnny Football: The Evolving Trademark Rights of College Athletes, pp. 246-248
Authors: John Grady and Mark S. Nagel
|Abstract: On February 15, 2013, Heisman Trophy winner Johnny Manziel’s licensing company, JMAN2 Enterprises LLC, filed suit against Eric Vaughn, who had been selling a variety of shirts that featured the phrase “Keep Calm and Johnny Football” with various uses of Texas A&M’s color scheme and/or protected logos (Watson, 2013a). Manziel filed to register a trademark in his nickname “Johnny Football” during the 2012 season prior to winning the Heisman Trophy (the trademark registration was still pending approval before the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office [USPTO] at the time of this writing). His licensing company sued for federal trademark infringement under the Lanham Act as well as violation of Texas right of publicity and unfair competition laws (Keahey, 2013). The case sparked an interesting discussion among athletic department compliance personnel and intercollegiate athletic observers when the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) noted that Manziel could keep any profits he was awarded for enforcing his trademark rights against potential infringers without jeopardizing his eligibility (Watson, 2013a).