Contents for SMQ Issue 14:2
|An Exploratory Investigation into NASCAR Fan Culture
Authors: Christie H. Amato, Cara Lee Okleshen Peters, Alan T. Shao
|Abstract: Marketers are taking notice of NASCAR¡¯s cultural impact and the impressive financial returns to be garnered from investing in the sport. This work examines NASCAR fans and their sport-related attitudes and behaviors. Results suggest that there are two follower types, those who are deeply bonded to the sport, and those who are pledged to the sport but demonstrate comparatively less commitment to racing, NASCAR related media, and sponsors¡¯ products. Managerial implications are discussed in terms of a relationship commitment metaphor.
|Circumstantial Factors and Institutions’ Outsourcing Decisions on Marketing Operations
Authors: Willie Burden, Ming Li
|Abstract: During the past decade, the outsourcing of marketing operations has become a common practice in American college athletics. While the reasons that an intercollegiate athletics program might choose to outsource its marketing operations are numerous, the decision to do so really depends on various circumstances. This study was designed to reveal both the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing and the circumstantial factors affecting athletic administrators’s outsourcing decisions. Also, three real cases were presented and examined to substantiate motives as well as the importance of reviewing circumstantial factors before an outsourcing decision is made.
|Congruence Between Attractive Product Features and Virtual Content Delivery for Internet Marketing Communication
Authors: Kevin Filo, Daniel C. Funk
|Abstract: The Internet has developed faster than any other form of electronic technology or communication. As a result, businesses strive to improve their Internet presence and evaluate their website communication. The majority of Internet marketing research has focused on the content analysis using traditional marketing mix elements: product, price, promotion, and place. The present study advocates a more consumer-oriented approach to Internet marketing that allows sport organizations to coordinate venue-based consumer experience with virtual content provided on Internet websites to capitalize on features of the product that consumers find attractive. Three studies were conducted to determine product features that appeal to consumers of women¡¯s professional sport and evaluate the sport organizations¡¯ websites for the communication of this content. The results show some congruence between the product features identified by event attendees and the website communication. However, the variability in the presentation and accessibility of these factors suggest a need for league-wide content guidelines as well as enhanced efforts to allow consumer interest to help shape Internet marketing efforts. After a discussion of the results and their implications for marketers, limitations and directions for future research are detailed.
|A Hierarchical Model of Service Quality for the Recreational Sport Industry
Authors: Yong Jae Ko, Donna L. Pastore
|Abstract: This study proposes and tests a conceptual model of service quality in recreational sport. The proposed model is based on a current conceptualization of service quality, which suggests that service quality is a multidimensional and hierarchical construct (Brady & Cronin, 2001; Dabholkar, Thorpe, & Rentz, 1996). In the proposed model, service quality consists of four primary dimensions which are defined by several corresponding subdimensions: (a) program quality ¨C range of program, operating time, and information, (b) interaction quality ¨C client-employee interaction and inter-client interaction, (c) outcome quality ¨C physical change, valence, and sociability, and (d) environment quality ¨C ambient condition, design, and equipment. The authors test the conceptual model using structural equation analyses and the findings support the conceptualization. Practical implications for recreation facility managers and sport marketers are discussed.
|Legal Implications of Reselling Tickets Above Face Value
Authors: James T. Reese, David L. Snyder
|Abstract: A number of professional sports teams are now engaged in various practices that allow tickets to be resold above face value. Such practices, which generate additional revenue for teams, are often the result of a relationship between teams and online entities such as StubHub. In one instance, a professional sports team and a ticket broker are vertically integrated. Some professional teams involved in these practices include the Seattle Mariners, San Francisco Giants, Arizona Diamondbacks, Los Angeles Clippers, Detroit Lions, Dallas Stars, and Phoenix Coyotes (Reese & Snyder, 2004). In this article, the legality of these ticketing practices is addressed from both a civil and criminal perspective. Also, the underlying financial implications and influence on ticket policy development is examined. Finally, the impact on fan identification and loyalty is discussed and recommended controls are proposed.
|Consumer Satisfaction and Identity Theory: A Model of Sport Spectator Conative Loyalty
Authors: Galen T. Trail, Dean F. Anderson, Janet S. Fink
|Abstract: Sport spectating is a popular activity in the United States but little is known about the theoretical nuances that determine loyalty behavior in sport. The focus of the study was to test three competing conative loyalty models based on identity theory and consumer satisfaction theory. These models included relationships among team identification, disconfirmation/confirmation of expectancies, mood, self-esteem responses, and conative loyalty. Data were collected from spectators at a large Midwestern university at two home men’s (n=530) and two home women’s (n=749) intercollegiate basketball games. Male respondents made up 52% of the total sample. Two models fit well and were statistically equivalent. Model A explained 41% of the variance in sport spectator conative loyalty; however, Model B explained 49% of the variance in conative loyalty and lent support to the two intertwining theories. From a marketing perspective, the results indicated that it is critical to facilitate self-esteem responses to engender conative loyalty and thus attendance at future games and purchasing of team merchandise.