Contents for SMQ Issue 13:4
|“Welcome Home”: Motivations and Objectives of the 2004 Grand National Olympic Sponsors
Authors: Artemisia Apostolopoulou
|Abstract: Given the increasing dependence of sport organizations and events on corporate sponsorship, this study set out to examine the motivations of the Grand National sponsors of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games and the objectives they sought to fulfill through their sponsorship. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven of the ten Grand National Olympic sponsors. Findings indicated that these companies?decision to join the National Sponsoring Program was not entirely business-driven; rather, the desire to support the national effort and a sense of obligation led most companies to enter into a sponsorship agreement. As for the sponsors?objectives, our research confirmed past findings (e.g., Abratt, Clayton, & Pitt, 1987; Lough, Irwin, & Short, 2000; Ludwig & Karabetsos, 1999) by showing that increasing sales/market share, enhancing corporate image, and increasing awareness for the brand were highly valued objectives for national Olympic sponsors. In addition, our findings provide some support for the importance of corporate citizenship and improved employee relations. This study concludes with some recommendations for current and future organizing committees and companies considering an Olympic sponsorship at the national level.
|Marketing to Lifestyles: Action Sports and Generation Y
Authors: Gregg Bennett, Tony Lachowetz
|Abstract: The youth market is a highly coveted consumer segment that is difficult to both reach and influence. The current youth market has been called the Echo Boom Generation, but it is most commonly known as Generation Y. This generation of Americans consists of individuals born between 1982 and 2003 (Howe & Strauss, 2000). Generation Y makes up almost 25% of the United States population, while Generation Y’s predecessor, Generation X, makes up only 16% of the population. Individuals born between 1946 and 1964 comprise the Baby Boom Generation, which currently makes up a larger percentage (28.2%) of the United States population (Gardyn & Fetto, 2000); however, this advantage will decrease as Baby Boomers continue to age. As the number of Baby Boomers decreases, the spending power and influence of Generation Y will subsequently increase. The sheer size of Generation Y, coupled with the reported spending habits of young people, makes this segment a desirable target of corporations and sport marketing professionals.
|Revenue and Wealth Maximization in the National Football League: The Impact of Stadiu
Authors: Matthew Brown, Mark Nagel, Chad McEvoy, Daniel Rascher
|Abstract: The opening of the Palace of Auburn Hills, the SkyDome, and Oriole Park at Camden Yards led to the beginning of a construction boom in professional sport. In the National Football League (NFL) alone, 26 stadiums have been built or renovated in the past 10 years. Due to the additional revenue generated by these facilities and the NFL’s current revenue sharing system, professional football franchises are building new stadia for economic reasons rather than to replace unusable or unsafe facilities. The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference in net revenue change existed for NFL teams that moved into a new facility and to determine if there was a significant change in valuation for these franchises. The findings indicated that new stadia significantly increase revenue and franchise value in the NFL; therefore, the primary goal of every firm, wealth maximization, is met for teams after opening a new facility.
|Sport Marketing Quarterly, Dec. 2004
|An Exploratory Examination of Attributes Influencing Students’ Decisions to Attend College Sport Events
Authors: Mauricio Ferreira, Ketra L. Armstrong
|Abstract: This study employed a two-stage procedure to examine the attributes influencing 142 college students?preferences for and frequency of attending their university’s men’s and women’s hockey and basketball games. In stage one, a direct questioning approach of 53 students, the respondents referenced 21 different college sports and generated a composite list of 41 attributes in their general choice criteria for sport attendance. In stage two, a factor analysis of the responses from a sample of 89 students was performed to identify the structure of the 41 attributes. Discriminant analysis and regression analysis revealed the attributes most differentiating and important to consumers’ preferences for these sports were the ones directly related to the core product: degree of sport popularity and physical contact displayed during competition. Differences were found based on the sport (basketball or hockey) and the gender of the sport participants (men’s sports or women’s sports). Implications and strategies for marketing the respective sport events were presented.
|Jerry Bloom and the NCAA Amateurism Laws
Authors: Linda A. Sharp
|Abstract: In 2002, Jeremy Bloom became the World Cup champion in freestyle moguls skiing and competed in that event during the 2002 Winter Olympics. He also was a member of the University of Colorado football team, but because he accepted endorsements and a modeling contract to help combat the cost of his skiing career, the NCAA ruled Bloom had lost his amateur status to play collegiate football.
|NCAA Corporate Sponsor Objectives: Are There Differences Between Divisions I-A, I-AA, and I-AAA?
Authors: Nathan Tomasini, Chris Frye, David Stotlar
|Abstract: In NCAA Division I from 1997 to 2001, sponsorship revenue increased from $766,000 to $1.38 million per institution, an increase of 79%. Growth primarily occurred in Division I-A at a rate of 91%, while Divisions I-AA and I-AAA grew by 8.3% and 34.0%, respectively. During this period, no division experienced growth rates comparable to the accelerated rate that occurred in the entire sport industry (IEG Sponsorship.com, 2003).
|Likelihood of Attending a Sporting Event as a Function of Ticket Scarcity and Team Identification
Authors: Daniel Wann, Christina Bayens, Allison Driver
|Abstract: Although sport scientists have examined a number of factors that increase attendance at sporting events (e.g., promotions, ticket cost), the impact of scarcity has remained uninvestigated. Based on past research in consumer psychology, it was hypothesized that individuals would report a greater interest in attending a sporting event in which few tickets remained (i.e., the scarce condition) than when tickets remained abundant (the not scarce condition). Additionally, previous studies have predicted that persons with a high level of identification with a target team would be more interested in attending a game involving that team than those with a low level of identification. An interaction between scarcity and identification was not expected; thus, the scarcity manipulation was predicted to have an equal effect on both types of fans. The hypotheses were tested by assessing the identification of 108 university students and presenting them with scenarios describing an upcoming game in which few or many tickets were available. The participants reported their desire to attend the game, and the results provided strong support for each hypothesis. Discussion includes the motivation underlying the scarcity effect in sport.