|Abstract:International Journal of Sport Finance, Volume 14, No.3, August 2019.
|Assessing Offensive/Defensive Strategies in a Football Match Using DEA
Authors: G. Villa and S. Lozano
|Abstract:Football teams play following two strategies: defensive and offensive. The length of time in which the team plays under each of these two modes will depend on who the rival team is and the technical play developed. Once the match is over, an analysis of the team’s performance is necessary to determine which aspects of the offensive/defensive strategies used during the game failed and which succeeded. Although there are some studies in the literature that assess the offensive and defensive efficiencies of football teams in a season, none of them deal with the performance in a single match. In this paper, a multiple modes of functioning (MMF) data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is pro-posed. This methodology determines the percentage of time in which the team should have played in defensive and offensive modes in order to maximize those efficiencies. The procedure has been applied to the Spanish First Division league in the 2014/2015 season.
|How Does Online Streaming Affect Antitrust Remedies to Centralized Marketing? The Case of European Football Broadcasting Rights
Authors: Oliver Budzinski, Sophia Gaenssle & Philipp Kunz-Kaltenhauser
|Abstract:The collective sale of football broadcasting rights constitutes a cartel, which, in the European Union, is only allowed if it complies with a number of conditions and obligations, including inter alia, partial unbundling, and the no-single-buyer rule. These regulations were defined with traditional TV-markets in mind. However, the landscape of audio-visual broadcasting is quickly changing, with online streaming services gaining popularity and relevance. This also alters the effects of the conditions and obligations for the centralized marketing arrangements. Partial unbundling may lead to increasing instead of decreasing prices for consumers. Moreover, the combination of partial unbundling and the no-single-buyer rule forces consumers into multiple subscriptions to several streaming services, which increases transaction costs. Consequently, competition authorities need to rethink the conditions and obligations they impose on centralized marketing arrangements in football. We recommend restricting the exclusivity of (live-) broadcasting rights and mandate third-party access to program guide information to redesign the remedies.
|The Purchase Price of Runners’ Sports Apparel: Combining Observational and Survey Data at Running Events
Authors: Erik Thibaut, Steven Vos, Jeroen Scheerder
|Abstract:The aim of the current study is twofold. First, it investigates the influencing factors of runners’ sports apparel value at a running event. Second, the potential value of observational data in the socioeconomic field is investigated, as this study combines data retrieved by a survey and by visually scanning pictures of event runners. The results demonstrate that visual data gathering methods contribute to explaining sports apparel usage and consumption. For example, it is found that runners who wear a shirt of the running event spent less money on their running shoes and overall sports apparel. From a methodological point of view, it is shown that observation leads to no nonresponse and thus corrects for selection bias. Other advantages (e.g., less selection bias, less recall bias, time-efficiency for research subject, potential automatic computer analysis in future) and disadvantages (e.g., technical, labor intensiveness for researcher, privacy) of visual data are discussed.
|The Effect of Sponsorship Announcements on Stock Returns of Sponsees
Authors: Canan Eryigit and Mehmet Eryigit
|Abstract:The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of sponsorship announcements on the returns of sponsee stocks by using event study methodology. The study sample includes 25 sponsorship announcements of four major sports clubs listed in Borsa Istanbul for the time period 2011–2015. Statistical significance of the abnormal returns, cumulative abnormal returns, average abnormal returns, and cumulative abnormal returns are tested by t-test. Mann Whitney U tests were performed to check the differences in abnormal returns based on sponsors’ home countries and form of sponsorship. Regression analyses were employed to identify determinants of abnormal returns. Overall, the results indicated that the effect of sponsorship announcements on stock returns of sponsee differs based on the foreign/local origin of sponsor and form of sponsorship. Abnormal returns of sponsees who have foreign sponsors were higher than those who have domestic sponsors. Besides, cumulative abnormal returns of sponsees were higher when sponsorship was in the form of financial assistance rather than in-kind assistance. Yet some sponsorship announcements did not yield significant abnormal returns. The study provides an empirical example of sponsorship effects on sports club stock performance from an emerging market with a relatively large sports economy.