SMQ Issue 30:2

Contents for SMQ Issue 30:2

Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 30, No. 2, June 2021.

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Comparison Between Various Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Based on Spectators’ Attitudes and Attendance Intention for a Professional Baseball Franchise
Authors: Chen-Yueh Chen and Yi-Hsiu Lin
Abstract: The effects of different corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-child and family, community relations, health and wellness, and environment protection-were compared in this study based on spectators’ attitudes toward a sports franchise and event attendance intention. A total of 354 spectators were recruited from the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental design was used as the research design, and a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted for data analysis. The results of this study indicate that spectators perceive the environment protection initiative to be more persuasive in terms of the attitude of sports spectators toward sports franchises and event attendance intention than child and family and health and wellness initiatives. Additionally, community relation initiatives are perceived to be more effective than child and family initiatives in terms of consumers’ attitudes toward sports franchises and event attendance intention. This article contributes both theoretical and practical knowledge and implications to CSR studies pertaining to sports from an Asian perspective.

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An Integrated Model for Stadium Atmosphere and Stadium Attachment: An Empirical Test in Two Baseball Stadium Contexts
Authors: Masayuki Yoshida, Brian S. Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Naoko Yoshioka
Abstract: Masayuki Yoshida, Brian S. Gordon, Makoto Nakazawa, and Naoko Yoshioka
Abstract: Synthesizing several streams of theoretical reasoning such as attribution theory, cue-utilization theory, and place attachment, the purposes of this study were to (1) develop a new theoretical model integrating key atmospheric stimuli and the two dimensions of stadium attachment (stadium identity and stadium dependence) into stadium atmosphere research and (2) examine the hypothesized relationships. Data were collected from spectators attending professional baseball games at theme park-like (n = 242) and traditional (n = 300) stadiums. Based on the results, the dimensions of game-, spectator-, facility-, and organizer-induced stimuli were found to have positive effects on overall stadium atmosphere in both settings. Furthermore, the impact of overall stadium atmosphere on spectators’ conative loyalty was mediated by stadium identity. The theoretical model and results highlight the importance of stadium identity that is enhanced by stadium atmosphere and consumer satisfaction and leads to greater conative loyalty toward sport teams.

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Niche Sport Sponsorship: Providing the Target Market Sponsors Want?
Authors: Greg Greenhalgh, Tiesha Martin, and Allison Smith
Abstract: Professional niche sports are tremendously reliant on the resources received via corporate sponsorship as they are unlikely to attract substantial revenue via media contracts, ticket sales, or merchandise sales, especially when compared to mainstream sports. Furthermore, niche sports are vying for the same corporate support as their more established mainstream counterparts. However, niche sports have been found to have the ability to provide sponsors with a more specific demographic of fans compared to mainstream sports. If that demographic aligns with a corporation’s target market, the value of this relationship could increase substantially. Yet, the findings of the current study revealed nearly 60% of the 67 sponsors of two different niche sport teams indicated their target market included all of the categories provided for sex, ethnicity, education, and income, even though results also indicated the two teams were attracting statistically significant different fan bases: from a demographic perspective.

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Declining Student Attendance at College Sporting Events: Testing the Relative Influence of Constraints
Authors: Jason Simmons, Nels Popp, and T. Christopher Greenwell
Abstract: College students represent an important target market for intercollegiate athletic marketers; however, re-cent years have seen a nationwide trend of declining student attendance at high-profile sporting events (Cohen, 2014; Rowland, 2019). The current study examined this issue by studying the influence of constraints on student attendance. Data were collected in partnership with the National Association of Collegiate Marketing Administrators (NACMA). In total, more than 23,000 respondents from 60 NCAA Di-vision I institutions participated in the study. Conjoint analysis was utilized to assess student attendance preferences across a set of attributes to determine the relative importance of each constraint tested. Separate analyses were conducted for both football and men’s basketball samples as well as NCAA conference tier (Power Five, Group of Five, FCS). Results indicated constraint importance varied by market segment. Of note, as passion levels among student respondents increased, importance shifted from ticket price to seat location and game day atmosphere.

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An Examination of Relationship Selling Effectiveness in NCAA Division I Ticket Sales
Authors: James F. Weiner, T. Christopher Greenwell, and Megan B. Shreffler
Abstract: College athletics departments are making more money than ever and spending it even faster (Fulks, 2017). As athletics departments look to increase their individual schools’ revenue year-to-year, ticket sales stands out as one of the only revenue streams without a long term contract. The current study examined the effect of relationship selling on several purchase behaviors in Division I college football. A study of over 90 FBS schools concluded the factor of customer disclosure predicted all football-related purchase behaviors, while interaction intensity was found as a non-predictor or even negative predictor. Cooperative intentions predicted some but not all behaviors. Cross-selling behaviors were uniquely predicted by agent disclosure, which did not predict any other outcomes, suggesting that while relationship selling may have a positive effect on the bottom line, not all factors are positive. Additionally, findings suggest positive selling relationships appear differently, cross-selling the customer to another sport.

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Types of CSR Initiatives and Fans’ Social Outcomes: The Case of Professional Sport Organizations
Authors: Yoseph Mamo, Kwame J. A. Agyemang, and Damon P. S. Andrew
Abstract: While the burgeoning research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) indicates the importance of tracking the interest of external stakeholders to obtain societal goals, insight into what types of CSR activities contribute to social outcomes remain scarce. As such, the purpose of this study was to identify the relevant dimensions of CSR that can enhance the social outcomes of one specific group of external stakeholders (i.e., sport fans). Data were collected from US sports fans (n = 312) over the course of two weeks. The present research indicates that fans gain more excitement and happiness as well as increased their social cohesion if sport organization CSR initiatives are concentrating on sport governance, environmental management and sustain-ability, and philanthropy issues. Assessing the impact of CSR from micro-level approach would be one way to strengthen the relationship between existing fans and sport organizations to make positive social impact.

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