SMQ Issue 28:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 28:3

Abstract: Sport Marketing Quarterly, Volume 28, No. 3, September 2019.

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Meta-Analytic Review of Sport Consumption: Factors Affecting Attendance to Sporting Events
Authors: Yukyoum Kim, Marshall Magnusen, Minjung Kim, and Hyun-Woo Lee
Abstract: Understanding what leads individuals to consume the product of sport is central to the study of the sport management discipline. Though the study of sport consumer behavior benefits from an extensive body of work, many key issues (e.g., external validity concerns) still require attention. This meta-analysis provides a comprehensive and systematic empirical review of the sport (mostly team sport) attendance literature. Specifically, this study examines the relationship between three categories of predictors (fan-focused, relation-ship-focused, and product-focused) and sport attendance. Also examined are four categories of moderators (sport level, culture, gender, and sample type). The present meta-analysis integrates 352 effect sizes based on 172,142 participants from 123 independent samples drawn from 119 studies. The results of this study, such as the relationship-focused factors of identification and commitment having the largest effects on attendance of all the proposed antecedents, offer a variety of important implications for improving how sport attendance is studied and marketing initiatives are planned and executed.

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Perceived Influence of Word-of-Mouth Recommendation on Sport-Watching Behavior: A Gender Difference Perspective
Authors: Akira Asada and Yong Jae Ko
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in the relationship between sports consumers’ perceived influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) recommendation and its antecedents. We conducted a survey with sports consumers who had received a WOM recommendation to watch a sporting event and actually watched the event. Survey participants indicated how much the WOM recommendation influenced their sport-watching behavior. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that a recommender’s trustworthiness, the richness of message content, and the strength of message delivery were positively related to perceived influence of WOM recommendation. Latent mean analysis revealed that women perceived greater influence of WOM recommendation on their sport-watching behavior compared to men. Multigroup SEM indicated that trustworthiness had a positive relation with perceived influence of WOM recommendation only for female consumers, whereas strength of message delivery had a positive association with perceived influence of WOM recommendation only for male consumers.

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The Impact of Mega Sporting Events on Host Country’s Destination Images: The Cases of the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics and 2015 Beijing IAAF World Championships
Authors: Yongjae Kim, Jeeyoon Kim, Sungho Cho, and Kitae Yim
Abstract: From a tourism perspective, this study examined the change in host countries’™ destination images before and after mega sporting events. The study developed and tested a conceptual model delineating the relationship among sport event involvement, designation images, attitude towards the host country, and visit intention. This study further examined if the model has the same pattern across different sporting events. For the purpose of this study, the 2015 International Association of Athletics Federations Championships and the 2014 Winter Olympic Games were selected. Using a mall and street intercept sampling method, a total of 572 participants were recruited in the United States. The results of a series of structural equation modeling tests showed positive change in Safety and Urban images before and after both events. This study showed that change in destination images varies across sporting events. These findings suggest the need for more holistic and integrated event marketing strategies to attract more tourists from foreign countries.

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How Major League Teams Hire Entry- Level Ticket Sales Representatives: A Qualitative Analysis
Authors: Nels Popp, Michelle Harrolle, and Janelle E. Wells
Abstract: Maintaining a robust salesforce is critical for nearly any business. The sport industry is no exception, as salespeople help sport organizations generate essential ticket revenue. While the sport industry is a popular career option for young professionals, relatively few aspiring sport managers desire to work in sales. As such, entry-level sport ticket sales positions experience high turnover. The purpose of this study is to assess the hiring processes of recruitment, evaluation, and selection of sales candidates among North American professional sport leagues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 ticket sales hiring managers from teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL, and NHL). Data analysis from interviews revealed four primary themes: (a) recruitment as an active and continuous process, (b) contrasting approaches to interviewing, (c) hiring managers’ preferences for ideal candidates, and (d) challenges assessing candidates. Several subthemes were identified. Implications for faculty, practitioners, and students are discussed.

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