SMQ Issue 23:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 23:1

SMQ 23.1
Authors: Donna Orender, Yongick Jeong, Hai Tran, Amy Rundio, Bob Heere, Brianna Newland, Jeremy Scott Jordan, Simon Brandon-Lai, Mikihiro Sato, Aubrey Kent, Daniel C. Funk, George B. Cunningham, E. Nicole Melton, Alfonso N. Cornish, II and Ben Larkin
Abstract: This is the entire issue in PDF format that you can download.

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View from the Field: Donna Orender, pp. 3-4
Authors: Donna Orender
Abstract: Did you know: nearly 60% of all college graduates are women; 70% of all new businesses are created by women; women influence nearly 95% of all consumer purchases and are directly responsible from 60-98% of all purchases; and participation by women in sports has grown 580% at the collegiate level since the inception of Title IX.

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Detecting Pod Position Effects in the Context of Multi-Segment Sport Programs: Implications from Four Super Bowl Broadcasts, pp. 5-16
Authors: Yongick Jeong and Hai Tran
Abstract: Using data obtained via natural quasi-experiments across four Super Bowl games (2002, 2003, 2004, and 2006), we investigate the impact of pod (commercial break) position on advertising effectiveness in sport broadcasts. A series of multiple regression analyses was conducted by classifying pods into three categories based on their positions: quarter position, within-quarter position, and between-quarter position. The results support general primacy effects. The brands promoted during earlier quarters were significantly better recognized than those that appeared in later quarters in the quarter position comparisons. Similarly, the brands advertised during the first quarter were better recognized than those similarly situated in the fourth quarter. However, ad favorability was not related to commercial pod positions.

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Cause-Related versus Non-Cause-Related Sport Events: Differentiating Endurance Events Through a Comparison of Athletes’ Motives, pp. 17-26
Authors: Amy Rundio, Bob Heere, and Brianna Newland
Abstract: In the crowded sport event market, differentiation strategy is key to the survival of event organizers. One way to differentiate an event is by adding a charity component. To understand how events attract athletes, this study compared the motives of athletes to participate in cause-related or non-cause-related sport events. Using the Motivations of Marathoners Scales (MOMS), participants rated motivations to attend either cause-related sport events or non-cause-related sport events. The five motivations important for all participants were General Health Orientation, Personal Goal Achievement, Weight Concern, Self-Esteem, and Affiliation motivations. Association with cause-related sport events attracted participants more for Self- Esteem, Recognition/Approval, Personal Goal Achievement, and Competition reasons. Non-cause-related events attracted participants more motivated by the Weight Concern motive. Overall, the psychographic differences for participating in either cause-related or non-cause-related events supported the view that adding a charity component to an event can add to the differentiation strategy of the organization.

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The Impact of Fan Identification and Notification on Survey Response and Data Quality, pp. 27-36
Authors: Jeremy Scott Jordan, Simon Brandon-Lai, Mikihiro Sato, Aubrey Kent, and Daniel C. Funk
Abstract: The use of online data collection techniques in sport marketing research has increased in recent years. The value of data obtained this way is determined, in part, by the quality of survey response. Scholars have studied strategies that enhance survey response, including the use of notification and topic salience. However, empirical support for the use of notification has been obtained primarily from mail-based survey research, so it is unclear if the benefits would be evident with online data collection. This study examined the influence of notification techniques and topic salience, measured as fan identification, on two metrics commonly used to measure survey response: response rate and response quality. Overall, findings revealed a significant relationship between notification and response rate while no relationship was found between notification and response quality. Additionally, there was no relationship between fan identification scores and survey participation while a relationship between fan identification and response quality was identified.

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Signals and Cues: LGBT Inclusive Advertising and Consumer Attraction, pp. 37-46
Authors: George B. Cunningham and E. Nicole Melton
Abstract: Drawing from signaling theory and creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of advertising inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals on consumers’ intentions to join a fitness club. The authors also considered the moderating effects of consumer gender and social dominance orientation. Participants (N = 203) took part in an experiment where they reviewed fitness club advertisements and then responded to a questionnaire. Persons who viewed LGBT inclusive advertisements were more likely to believe the club was diverse and inclusive (based on racial diversity, sex diversity, and sexual orientation and gender identity diversity) than were those who viewed non-inclusive advertisements. Logistic regression showed that club diversity, gender, and social dominance orientation interacted to predict intentions to join the club: for women, low levels of SDO were associated with greater intentions to join a diverse fitness club, while high levels of SDO were not associated with join intentions. For men, neither low levels nor high levels of SDO were associated with intentions to join a diverse fitness club. Marketing implications are discussed.

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Social Media’s Changing Legal Landscape Provides Cautionary Tales of “Pinterest” to Sport Marketers, pp. 47-49
Authors: Alfonso N. Cornish, II and Ben Larkin
Abstract: The use of social media as a communication tool to engage others has rapidly proliferated over the past decade (Wallace, Wilson, & Miloch, 2011). According to the Pew Research Center, 73% of all online adults were using social media as of September 2013 (Brenner, 2013). Facebook leads the way with 71% of all online adults using the platform in 2013; however, a growing number of individuals are also using other emerging platforms such as LinkedIn (22%), Pinterest (21%), and Twitter (18%) (Duggan & Smith, 2013). Further, approximately 42% used multiple social media platforms (Duggan & Smith, 2013). The prevalence with which consumers access and utilize these tools has made it especially attractive for marketers. With approximately half of the U.S. population ages 18-35 actively following a sport team and 35% actively commenting via social media, mobile marketing strategies have become especially attractive for sport marketers (Keller, 2013).

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