SMQ Issue 22:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 22:1

2013 March issue
Authors: Gregg Bennett, Daniel C. Funk, Steve McKelvey, Heather J. Lawrence, Ron T. Contorno, Brandon Steffek, Rui Biscaia, Abel Correia, Stephen Ross, António Rosado, João Maroco, Brendan Dwyer, Peter Titlebaum, Heather Lawrence, Chris Moberg, Christina Ramos, Steve McKelvey, James T. Masteralexis
Abstract: This is the entire issue in PDF format that you can download.

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A Note from the SMA President, p. 3
Authors: Gregg Bennett
Abstract: The Sport Marketing Association (SMA) executive board is preparing to meet in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as I write this note. By the time you read this, board members Steve McKelvey (Industry Relations), Khalid Ballouli (Academic Affairs), Andrea Eagleman (Student Affairs), Joris Drayer (at-large), Nancy (President Elect), and Eric Schwarz (SMA Executive Director) will have met to plan SMA 2013. The Board will also discuss issues of priority and growth for the year at these mid-year meetings. It has been a joy to work with each of these board members over the brief time I have been the President of our organization.

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Editor’s Note, p. 4
Authors: Daniel C. Funk
Abstract: I am delighted to have been selected to serve as the editor for Sport Marketing Quarterly (SMQ) for the next three years, succeeding outgoing editor Nancy Lough. Over the last three years, Nancy has moved SMQ forward and I would like to acknowledge and thank her for her efforts and dedication to the journal.

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Industry Insider: Greg Downey, pp. 5-8
Authors: Steve McKelvey
Abstract: An interview with Greg Downey, senior director of brand and consumer marketing at NASCAR.

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Selling Premium Seating in Today’s Sport Marketplace, pp. 9-19
Authors: Heather J. Lawrence, Ron T. Contorno, and Brandon Steffek
Abstract: The professional sport premium seating industry in the United States is in the midst of a reinvention that will require professional sport sales professionals to be more proactive in their approach to prospecting, selling, and servicing clients (Titlebaum & Lawrence, 2011). The intent of this study was to address one aspect of this reinvention and analyze the business characteristics of premium seating purchasers. A secondary purpose was to inform professional sport sales professionals about using data mining in premium seating sales. To execute the project, premium seating client lists from 18 professional sport teams and venues (N = 13,455) were analyzed using the master business database from infoUSA to determine the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code/type of business, employee size, sales volume/asset size, and business status of each client. Across all premium seating types, 33.2% of all premium seating owners were categorized in the top 10 SIC codes/business types.

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Spectator-Based Brand Equity in Professional Soccer, pp. 20-32
Authors: Rui Biscaia, Abel Correia, Stephen Ross, António Rosado, and João Maroco
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess brand equity in professional soccer teams. Through a preliminary analysis and further adaptation of the Spectator-Based Brand Equity (SBBE) scale, a refined model was tested among soccer fans. Results gathered from a confirmatory factor analysis indicated an acceptable fit of the model to the data and confirmed the relationship between Internalization, a single first-order construct, and Brand Associations, a second-order construct with ten dimensions. Review of the psychometric properties indicated all constructs had good internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. A multi-group analysis showed the cross validity of the model, and a structural equation model revealed its predictive validity, indicating the proposed model as a valid tool for assessing brand equity in professional soccer teams. Managerial implications of these results are discussed, and some guidelines are suggested for future research.

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The Impact of Game Outcomes on Fantasy Football Participation and National Football League Media Consumption, pp. 33-47
Authors: Brendan Dwyer
Abstract: Guided by the Attitude-Behavior Relationship framework, Drayer, Shapiro, Dwyer, Morse, and White (2010) qualitatively developed and proposed a conceptual model to explain the relationship between fantasy football and National Football League (NFL) consumption. Within this framework, it was proposed that in-season game outcomes related to one’s favorite NFL team and fantasy football team impact a participant’s attitudes and trigger additional NFL consumption. Utilizing a pre-post research design, the purpose of the current study was to assess a fantasy participant’s attitudinal and behavioral changes toward the NFL with twelve weeks of fantasy and favorite team outcomes serving as an extraneous treatment. The findings mostly support the framework’s proposition that game outcomes impact a participant’s NFL experience. However, one major revision was suggested because a disconnect resulted between a participant’s favorite NFL team attachment and the behavioral intentions related to the team. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as are suggestions for future research.

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Fortune 100 Companies: Insight into Premium Seating Ownership, pp. 48-58
Authors: Peter Titlebaum, Heather Lawrence, Chris Moberg, and Christina Ramos
Abstract: The rise in the number of new facilities built for professional sports franchises has significantly increased premium seating inventories in the United States. While the increased availability of premium seating represents an attractive revenue opportunity for teams and facilities, recent economic pressures and increased public scrutiny of corporate spending on sport-related entertainment and sponsorship has made the premium seating selling and retention environment more challenging. Because the current sports literature offers little insight into the motives of premium seating buyers or how these customers use and evaluate their premium tickets, qualitative research was conducted with 15 decision-makers at Fortune 100 firms that use premium seating as part of their overall sales and marketing efforts. The results reveal that customers use premium tickets for a variety of reasons, and tickets are a critical component of overall sponsorship strategies related to sporting events and teams. Insights also are provided that will help sellers develop a better game-day experience for their premium ticketing customers and enhance sponsorship activations.

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New FTC Guides Impact Use of Social Media for Companies and Athlete Endorsers, pp. 59-62
Authors: Steve McKelvey and James T. Masteralexis
Abstract: In 2012, Nike became the first company in the United Kingdom to have a Twitter campaign banned after the Advertising Standards Authority (ASA), the U.K.’s equivalent of the United States’ Federal Trade Commission, held that soccer star Wayne Rooney had violated rules for clearly communicating to the public that his tweets were advertisements for Nike (Furness, 2012). Nike, through its endorsement deal with Rooney, encouraged Rooney to engage in Twitter messaging as part of its wider “Make It Count” advertising campaign. Rooney’s tweet, which went out to his 4.37 million followers, said: “My resolution – to start the year as a champion, and finish it as a champion…#makeitcount gonike.me/make it count.” As stated by the ASA, “We considered that the Nike reference was not prominent and could be missed. We considered there was nothing obvious in the tweets to indicate they were Nike marketing communications” (Furness, 2012).

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