SMQ Issue 21:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 21:3

SMQ 21_3 whole file
Authors: William A. Sutton, Haynes Hendrickson, Patrick Walsh, Chih-I James Chien, Stephen D. Ross, Gi-Yong Koo, Brody J. Ruihley, Stephen W. Dittmore, Joseph E. Mahan III, Joris Drayer, Emily Sparvero, Chad Witkemper, Choong Hoon Lim, Adia Waldburger, Joris Drayer, Stephen L. Shapiro, Seoki Lee, Natasha T. Brison
Abstract: This is the entire issue in PDF format that you can download.

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From the SMA, p. 135
Authors: William A. Sutton
Abstract: It is difficult to believe that this year marks the 10th anniversary of the Sport Marketing Association (SMA). The brainchild of SMA President elect Gregg Bennett, the SMA has always had a strong commitment to industry and has truly walked its talk about being the bridge between academia and the sport industry. As a founding member, and now in my role as Past President, I have always had a deep appreciation for not only this relationship with the industry, but our commitment to scholarship and research through our premier journal, Sport Marketing Quarterly (SMQ), as well as our annual conference, which offers established researchers as well as aspiring scholars a forum for presentations, discussion, and the exchange of deals and viewpoints.

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View from the Field: Business Intelligence in the Sports World, pp. 136-137
Authors: Haynes Hendrickson
Abstract: A view from the field, from Haynes Hendrickson, President of Turnkey Intelligence.

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Sport Teams as Brand Extensions: A Case of Taiwanese Baseball, pp. 138-146
Authors: Patrick Walsh, Chih-I James Chien, and Stephen D. Ross
Abstract: Brand extensions are a popular strategy for professional sport teams as they can have a positive impact on team revenue and act as another touch point between teams and consumers. However, failed extensions could also potentially harm team brand equity. While research has begun to examine team brand extensions, no research has examined extensions from the perspective of the teams being an extension of a corporate brand. Therefore, this study examined the perceived fit between four professional baseball teams in Taiwan and the corporate parent brand which owned the teams, if team success impacted parent brand enhancement or dilution, and the impact that identification had on enhancement and dilution. The results suggest there was not a perceived fit between the parent brand and the teams, and team success was more likely to enhance the parent brand than team failure was to cause any dilution, particularly for those at higher levels of identification.

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Impact of Perceived On-Field Performance on Sport Celebrity Source Credibility, pp. 147-158
Authors: Gi-Yong Koo, Brody J. Ruihley, and Stephen W. Dittmore
Abstract: The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to examine the influence athletic performance has on the elements of source credibility, and (2) to investigate its impact on the causal relationships among consumers’ brand attitude, attitude toward the advertisement, and purchase intentions. A between-group experimental design was chosen to assess differences in the source credibility based on an athletic endorser’s on-field performance. Findings identified differences in the elements of source credibility based on an athlete endorser’s on-field performance, while the decomposition of the effects revealed the positive relationship between perceived on-field performance and source credibility. It is necessary to recognize what impact sport celebrity endorsers have in advertising and on endorsed brands based on their current performance, given that the issue of whether or not the sport celebrity’s on-field success affects individual dimensions of source credibility is scarcely addressed in athlete endorsement literature.

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Gambling and Fantasy: An Examination of the Influence of Money on Fan Attitudes and Behaviors, pp. 159-169
Authors: Joseph E. Mahan III, Joris Drayer, and Emily Sparvero
Abstract: The sports gambling industry represents a multi-billion dollar enterprise composed of a variety of activities, the composition of which is under constant debate. Among the topics of importance is the effect of sports gambling (both legal and illegal) on the attitudes and behaviors of sport fans. In particular, investigation into the nature and extent of involvement in activities such as betting on sport events and fantasy sport participation—along with any resultant effects on attitudes and more ‘traditional’ forms of sport fan behavior— could be of interest to sport marketing scholars and practitioners alike. To that end, the current study used an online questionnaire to survey self-identified sports fans on participation in fantasy sports, sports betting, as well as spending habits related to sports. Results suggested that fantasy sports and sports betting appear to serve as complementary investments by fans. The implications for both scholars and practitioners are also discussed.

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Social Media and Sports Marketing: Examining the Motivations and Constraints of Twitter Users, pp. 170-183
Authors: Chad Witkemper, Choong Hoon Lim, and Adia Waldburger
Abstract: This study examined what motives and constraints influence Sport Twitter Consumption (STC) in regard to following athletes. Furthermore, the study attempted to cultivate a reliable and valid model through which researchers and practitioners can measure Twitter consumption-related motivations and constraints. The proposed combined model consisted of 12 items with four measures of motivation (i.e., information, entertainment, pass time, and fanship) and 12 items with four measures of constraints (i.e., accessibility, economic, skills, social). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) method with a convenience sample of 1,124 respondents was employed to analyze the conceptual framework and elements of the scale. Motivations for STC among the respondents were positively and significantly related, whereas constraints were negatively and significantly related to their Twitter consumption in regard to following athletes. Results and future implications for practical and theoretical sport marketing research are also discussed.

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Dynamic Ticket Pricing in Sport: An Agenda for Research and Practice, pp. 184-194
Authors: Joris Drayer, Stephen L. Shapiro, and Seoki Lee
Abstract: For decades, the airline and hotel industries have regularly changed prices to keep pace with fluctuating levels of consumer demand. This demand-based approach to pricing is referred to as revenue management. Meanwhile, the sport industry has traditionally underpriced tickets using a cost-based approach in order to maximize attendance and promote fan satisfaction. However, as operating costs have grown, sport organizations are now forced to reconsider these conservative pricing practices. Subsequently, in 2009, the San Francisco Giants were the first team to utilize dynamic pricing, which is a strategy that mirrors the revenue management approach. While data supporting or refuting the reported benefits of this approach in sport remains sparse, the current paper utilizes the research on revenue management to develop an agenda of considerations regarding the use of demand-based ticket pricing strategies in sport. The paper is designed to guide researchers as they begin to explore the strategy’s myriad of critical (and yet unexplored) issues. Additionally, practical implications of adopting this pricing strategy in sport are considered.

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False Advertising on Enhanced Water Labels: An Analysis of Ackerman v. The Coca Cola Company, p. 195-198
Authors: Natasha T. Brison
Abstract: The U.S. carbonated soft-drink market posted a 2.1% volume decline in 2009, according to trade publication Beverage Digest (O’Leary, 2010). This was the fifth consecutive yearly decline for this market, and corporations have credited the loss to Americans choosing to seek bottled water as a healthier alternative to carbonated soft-drinks. In an effort to combat decreasing sales, corporations have developed products in the nutrient-enhanced water category. These enhanced waters are fortified with vitamins and nutrients, and tout health benefits beyond mere hydration. For example, these brands claim to rejuvenate and replenish the human body with essential vitamins and minerals, and some even advertise ingredients aimed at actual ailments. The most popular of these brands is the Coca- Cola Company’s (Coca-Cola) Vitaminwater, which boasts a more than 50% market share in the noncarbonated beverage category. Even with the recession, sales of Vitaminwater rose an estimated 37% in 2007-2008 (Elliott, 2009). Much of Vitaminwater’s success can be attributed to Coca-Cola’s marketing and advertising efforts.

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