SMQ Issue 20:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 20:1

Entire issue of SMQ 20:1
Authors: Nancy Lough, Eric C. Schwarz, Jim Kadlecek, Jorg Henseler, Bradley Wilson, Kate Westberg, Stephen L. Shapiro, Lynn L Ridinger, Coyte G. Cooper, Greg P. Greenhalgh, Jason M. Simmons, Marion E. Hambrick, T. Christopher Greenwell, John McMillen, Rebecca McMillen, Brendan Dwyer, Carrie W. Le Crom, Nathan Tomasini, Gregory A. Smith
Abstract: This is the entire issue in PDF format that you can download.

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Editor’s Note, p. 3
Authors: Nancy Lough
Abstract: The beginning of 2011 marks the 20th anniversary of Sport Marketing Quarterly. A significant evolution has occurred in the field of sport marketing over the past 20 years, evidenced by the scholarly work published in SMQ. This issue serves as an example of how many of the topics studied today remain fertile areas for inquiry, while the parameters of the investigations now more often delve into relationships between constructs.

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A Note from the SMA President, p. 4
Authors: Eric C. Schwarz
Abstract: I hope everyone has had a restful Christmas holiday and your semester has gotten off to a great start. This is a year of change for the Sport Marketing Association—starting at the top with my election at the annual conference this past October in New Orleans. As part of that election, it was also decided to move the SMA National Office from its only home at the University of Memphis to be housed on the campus of Saint Leo University in Florida.

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Industry Insider: Ed Kiernan, p. 5-6
Authors: Jim Kadlecek
Abstract: Ed Kiernan joined GMR Marketing in July 2009 from Peter Jacobsen Sports (PJS), where he was the Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer (CMO). As Jacobsen’s business partner, he oversaw the agency’s sports marketing and corporate consulting practice with a special emphasis in overall brand strategy/management for blue chip companies, athlete representation, global event management/ promotion, and the negotiation of complex multilevel/ multimedia contracts for sports and entertainment properties. He was directly responsible for growing the sports marketing practice and establishing and implementing new business and sales strategies, marketing plans, programs, and objectives for an international sports marketing agency.

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Managers’ Perceptions of the Impact of Sport Sponsorship on Brand Equity: Which Aspects of the Sponsorship Matter Most? , p. 7-21
Authors: Jorg Henseler, Bradley Wilson, and Kate Westberg
Abstract: This paper examines how sponsors perceive the impact of different elements of a sponsorship package on brand equity. An empirical study using an online survey was conducted among key managers involved in sponsoring football clubs in the Netherlands. This study develops a formative measure of sponsorship, termed the Sport Sponsorship Index, and links this measure with brand equity. Results indicate that the various facets of a sport sponsorship package, such as exposure of the brand and coverage of the sport, are perceived by sponsors to contribute differently to the impact on brand equity. Within sponsorship negotiation, these findings assist all parties in understanding the relative importance of the elements of a sponsorship in fulfilling brand-related objectives. By constructing and validating an adequate scale of the key components incorporated into a sponsorship package, we provide sport administrators with item level diagnostics which can contribute to improving their sponsorship offering.

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An Analysis of Donor Involvement, Gender, and Giving in College Athletics, p. 22-32
Authors: Stephen L. Shapiro and Lynn L Ridinger
Abstract: Involvement has been examined extensively within the consumer behavior literature. However, limited research exists concerning involvement and charitable contributions. Additionally, because of women’s growing financial power, college athletic departments are increasingly interested in understanding how to attract greater numbers of female donors. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in donor involvement using Zaichkowsky’s (1994) Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Several demographic characteristics of donors were also compared by gender. A sample of 1,664 donors from three NCAA Division I universities participated in this study. The PII was found to be an adequate measure of donor involvement based on the sample scores. Male and female donors differed in their level of affective involvement, annual contributions, donor longevity, and household income. These findings can be used to further our understanding of donor involvement, and to assist in the development of strategies to recruit and retain female contributors.

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The Motivational Preferences of Consumers Attending Multiple NCAA Wrestling Events, p. 33-40
Authors: Coyte G. Cooper
Abstract: During the past 30 years, NCAA Division I athletic administrators have chosen to engage in a profit maximization model that has resulted in program eliminations for non-revenue, Olympic sport programs (Ridpath, Yiamouyiannis, Lawrence, & Galles, 2008). With “lack of spectator interest” identified as a significant criterion for program elimination (Gray & Petzer, 1995), there is a strong need for the development of marketing plans that improve non-revenue consumer interests at the local, regional, and national levels. Thus, the purpose of the research was to examine the motivational preferences of consumers at NCAA wrestling events (N = 975). In addition to demonstrating consistent trends in cumulative motivational preferences (e.g., individual match-ups, achievement, and wrestling loyalist), the results illustrated that consumers had unique reasons for attending the different types of wrestling events.

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Spectator Support: Examining the Attributes That Differentiate Niche from Mainstream Sport , p. 41-52
Authors: Greg P. Greenhalgh, Jason M. Simmons, Marion E. Hambrick, T. Christopher Greenwell
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to identify the attributes consumers use to distinguish between mainstream and niche sports and determine which of those attributes were related to support for niche sports. Niche sports were classified as those sports not attracting mainstream media attention or large scale live audiences (Miloch & Lambrecht, 2006). Participants (n = 197) were asked to rate their perception of seven attributes (i.e., accessibility, popularity, uniqueness, affordability, star power, player similarities, and player skill) with four niche sports and one mainstream sport. Results indicated that consumers differentiate niche sports from mainstream sports across several attributes. Specifically, fans associated affordability and player similarity with niche sports, and star power and popularity with the mainstream sport. These findings illustrate which aspects the respective sports should emphasize to reach consumers and suggest how niche sport marketers may position their sport property against mainstream sports.

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Sport Slogans and Trademark Law: Are the Dallas Cowboys Really ‘America’s Team’?, p. 53-55
Authors: John McMillen and Rebecca McMillen
Abstract: Love or hate them, the Dallas Cowboys are “America’s Team.” For more than 30 years, the prominent National Football League team has referred to itself as “America’s Team,” a reference to their national appeal and popularity, but also a term that infuriates opposing teams and fans. However, according to a Texas federal district court, the Dallas Cowboys indeed are America’s team for trademark purposes (Dallas Cowboys Football Clubs, Ltd. v. Am.’s Team Props., 2009). This article analyzes the Dallas Cowboys and National Football League’s 2009 lawsuit against America’s Team Properties and then presents implications for sport marketers. This case illustrates the importance of sport marketers completing proper trademark registration and also verifying whether a mark is already in use.

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The Richmond What? The Naming of a Minor League Baseball Franchise, p. 56-64
Authors: Brendan Dwyer, Carrie W. Le Crom, Nathan Tomasini, and Gregory A. Smith
Abstract: In September of 2008 the Richmond Braves (R-Braves) of Minor League Baseball (MiLB) relocated to Gwinnett County, Georgia, after operating in the Richmond market for 43 years. Like several high-profile moves in professional sports, the crux of this team’s relocation centered on the organization’s request for a new stadium. The contentious split left Richmond, Virginia without a professional baseball team, spurned a fan base, and most importantly, opened up an important media market (58th in the country) that quickly became the envy of several MiLB organizations across the country. Despite zero movement on a new stadium in Richmond, it took only one year before a new ownership group, the Richmond Professional Baseball Organization, entered the market with a new team and a not-so-new challenge of reenergizing a disenfranchised fan base and community.

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