SMQ Issue 19:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 19:3

Industry Insider: Tonya Antonucci, p. 123-124
Authors: Nancy Lough
Abstract: An interview with Tonya Antonucci, Commissioner of Women’s Professional Soccer.

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An Investigation of Old School Values in the Arena Football League, p. 125-131
Authors: K. Damon Aiken, Richard M. Campbell, Jr., and Ajay Sukhdial
Abstract: Over the past decade or so, the study of oldschoolness has emerged as both a significant values dimension and an important fan segmentation dimension. This paper advances research in the study of old school values by administering the Old School Scale to fans at an Arena Football League (AFL) game. Interestingly, even in this proposed “new school” sport, AFL fans appear to hold some measure of old school values. In addition, the study uncovers noteworthy demographic differences. For instance, female AFL fans are significantly more Old School than male fans (especially in their attitudes towards winning and their sentiments in regards to professional athletes being role models). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as well as directions for future research.

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The Use of Sport Celebrities in Advertising: A Replication and Extension, p. 132-142
Authors: Brody James Ruihley, Rodney C. Runyan, and Karen E. Lear
Abstract: The use of sport celebrities in advertising campaigns is an important aspect in marketing to a target market of sport fans. With many star athletes becoming increasingly involved in negative off-field issues, it is questioned whether ads featuring athletes have decreased over time. This study replicates, extends, and breaks new ground on the topic of sport celebrities in advertising. Using a content analysis, the study replicates the work of Stone, Joseph, and Jones (2003). By replicating the Stone et al. content analysis, we provide validation for the earlier work, as generally called for by many leading researchers. Extending the study into the most recent decade enlarges the current literature, as it enables the identification of changes in the way advertisers use celebrity athletes in print advertising. By investigating the issue of race in such ads, we extend the current literature to explore advertisers’ use of African-American endorsers to promote products. We find general support for the earlier study; however, not all trends predicted by Stone et al. materialized. Other results indicate a significant discrepancy in the endorsement activity of African-American athletes compared to Caucasians, with Caucasians receiving a disproportionate amount of endorsement opportunities compared to their participation rates.

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Personal Opinions and Beliefs as Determinants of Collegiate Football Consumption for Revered and Hated Teams, p. 143-153
Authors: Jeremy J. Sierra, Harry A. Taute, and Robert S. Heiser
Abstract: Although personal opinions and beliefs influence consumer behavior, research linking such factors to sport consumption is deficient. Hence, two studies are developed. Study 1 explores beliefs (i.e., internal locus of control for game outcomes) and opinions (i.e., personal expertise about a team, attitude toward the head coach) as determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games and purchase apparel of their favorite college football team. Study 2 examines these same determinants of fans’ willingness to attend games involving their least favorite college football team. Study 1 results indicate significant positive effects for fans’ internal locus of control and willingness to purchase apparel and attend games. Also, fans’ personal expertise and attitude toward the coach relate positively to willingness to attend games. The findings from Study 2 reveal significant positive effects for fans’ internal locus of control and attitude toward the coach on willingness to attend games with least favorite teams. Implications for sports marketers are offered.

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Does Service Matter? An Examination of Donor Perceptions of Service Quality in College Athletics, p. 154-165
Authors: Stephen L. Shapiro
Abstract: Service quality has been recognized as a strategic tool for improving organizational performance. Many non-profit organizations have taken a market-based approach to fundraising, which enhances the importance of service excellence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine donor perceptions of service quality in college athletics. First, an adapted version of Sargeant’s (2001) non-profit service quality instrument was examined to assess its appropriateness within the context of college athletic donors. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and validity and reliability analyses provided evidence of an adequate model fit. Subsequently, three multiple linear regression models were developed to examine the relationship between service quality and donor satisfaction, donor longevity, and gift amount. The results indicated a significant relationship between service quality and donor satisfaction. However, a direct relationship between service quality and donor behavioral outcomes was not found.

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American Needle v. National Football League and the Future of Collective Licensing Agreements in Sport, p. 166-169
Authors: Lisa Pike Masteralexis
Abstract: The U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision in American Needle v. National Football League is not the “death knell” of collective licensing agreements in sports, but it will hold the NFL and other professional sports entities to a higher level of antitrust scrutiny than they had hoped. The issue in American Needle v. National Football League was whether the NFL’s collective licensing arm, NFL Properties, LLC (NFLP), was a single entity, and therefore, exempt from antitrust liability under Section 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act. Section 1 deems “[e]very contract, combination in the form of a trust or otherwise, or, conspiracy, in restraint of trade” illegal (Sherman Act, 2006).

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NASCAR: Checkered Flags Are Not All That Are Being Waved, p. 170-179
Authors: Jason W. Lee, Matt Bernthal, Warren A. Whisenant, and Susan Mullane
Abstract: The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is a powerful force in the world of sport. Each year, fans flock to race tracks across the country to witness the thunderous sounds and incredible sight of cars racing at speeds often in excess of 180 miles per hour. It is a sport that has experienced phenomenal growth since its inception in 1947. While NASCAR was born in the Southeastern United States and has a uniquely Southern history, it now has tracks all across the country. However, it is a sport that for a number of reasons retains a stereotype as a “redneck,” “good ol’ boy,” Southern sport, a stereotype that could hamper its ability to attract new, more demographically diverse fans, as well as some sponsors.

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