SMQ Issue 18:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 18:3

SMQ Profile/Interview: Ronald Dick, Duquesne University, pp. 123-125
Authors: Matthew Robinson
Abstract: An interview with Ronald Dick, assistant professor at Duquesne University and co-creator of Bridging the Gap.

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Measuring the Motives of Sport Event Attendance: Bridging the Academic-Practitioner Divide to Understanding Behavior, pp. 126-138
Authors: Daniel C. Funk, Kevin Filo, Anthony A. Beaton, and Mark Pritchard
Abstract: The ability to draw attendees to performances is vital to the success of a sport organization. As a result, sport managers and academics attempt to investigate motivations that drive decisions to attend events. In order to make predictions, academic demands have lead to the proliferation of instruments and constructs to capture a wide variety of motives, but these tools have limited ability to explain game attendance; and practitioners demand shorter scales to increase efficiency. The purpose of this research is to provide a parsimonious measuring tool of motives to explain sport event attendance. A 10-item scale was distributed to sport spectators and the general population (N = 2,831) to measure five facets of motivation: Socialization, Performance, Excitement, Esteem, and Diversion (SPEED). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the psychometric properties of the SPEED scale. MANOVA results indicate the five SPEED motives are able to differentiate prior game attendance behavior. Multiple linear regression results indicate three facets explain 30% of the variance in the frequency of game attendance. The SPEED scale also demonstrated the ability to explain 75% of the variance in team commitment. Suggestions are made for further application and employment of the SPEED scale, along with the marketing of Excitement, Performance, and Esteem.

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Minor League Baseball: Exploring the Growing Interest in Outsourced Sport Marketing, pp. 139-149
Authors: Willie Burden and Ming Li
Abstract: A limited amount of literature has examined the outsourcing of sport marketing operations and media rights from the perspectives of large NCAA Division I institutions or the service providers (Li & Burden, 2002). Even less attention has been given to the perspectives of professional sport organizations. This essay focuses on the nature of outsourcing from the viewpoint of minor league baseball (MiLB) organizations, to discern any similarities or differences in outsourcing decisions among the three classifications commonly referred to as AAA (Triple-A), AA (Double-A), and A (Single-A); as well as between MiLB and previous studies concerning elite intercollegiate athletics programs. Approximately 41% of MiLB teams outsource at least part of their marketing operations with Class A clubs the most likely to outsource. Decision drivers include the client’s utilization of external expertise, enhancement of marketing operations, and financial advantages. The keys to a successful outsourcing program include a well-developed strategic plan by the outsourcing organization as well as the development of a cooperative partnership.

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In Pursuit of Satisfaction and Fortification: Stakeholder Perceptions of NCAA Intercollegiate Wrestling Rules and Regulations, pp. 150-159
Authors: Coyte G. Cooper and Erianne A. Weight
Abstract: During the past 25 years, NCAA wrestling has experienced a significant decline in the number of programs offered at the intercollegiate level. Amid the current economic landscape facing intercollegiate athletics, it appears that the only sure way to enhance the longevity of college wrestling is through increased fan support and revenue. The purpose of the research was to survey stakeholders of college wrestling to determine their level of satisfaction with the rules and regulations implemented in NCAA wrestling competitions. Utilizing customer satisfaction theory, a national survey was conducted and completed by 1,095 respondents. Regression analysis is used to examine the impact of age and sport affiliation on group satisfaction with current rules and regulations. In addition, open-ended responses are explored. Results indicate that current stakeholders are not satisfied with many of the current rules and regulations. Significant findings and implications are explored.

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To License or Not to License: That is the Question for Professional Sport Leagues and the NCAA, pp. 160-164
Authors: Anita M. Moorman and Marion E. Hambrick
Abstract: Three recent cases that are currently pending in federal courts assert a variety of legal theories and, at first glance, may seem to bear no connection. However, a common thread links all three legal challenges: the business activity of licensing. These three cases, one of which will soon be heard by the United States Supreme Court, have the potential to dramatically affect licensing practices in both professional and collegiate sport. When one thinks of the sport licensing industry, the first thought may be of T-shirts, jerseys, and coffee mugs emblazoned with familiar names, logos, and mascots. The sport licensing industry ranks as one of the top revenue producers in the licensing world. However, as sport licensing has grown, it has also become more sophisticated, extending into goods and services well beyond the traditional T-shirt, jersey, or branded collectible item (International Licensing Industry Merchandisers’ Association, 2009).

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Sportscape Factors Influencing Spectator Attendance and Satisfaction at a Professional Golf Association Tournament, pp. 165-172
Authors: Keith W. Lambrecht, Frederick Kaefer, and Samuel D. Ramenofsky
Abstract: Sportscape refers to service extensions and the physical surroundings of a sports event. This is a case study that focuses on sportscape factors and how they influence the overall satisfaction of spectators attending a PGA TOUR event. Golf is different from other sports in that it has a flexible venue and is experienced differently by spectators and, therefore, careful analysis must be given to sportscape factors. A survey was developed and implemented at a PGA TOUR event to identify the influence of eight specific sportscape factors on the level of satisfaction of spectators. Based on preliminary descriptive analysis, the spectators appeared to be satisfied with all eight sportscape factors. By using cluster analysis, two distinct homogeneous groups of spectators were identified: a smaller group that was more satisfied with the sportscape factors and a larger group that was less satisfied. Multiple regression was then used to identify the sportscape factors that impacted overall satisfaction by cluster. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are made based on our findings to PGA directors to enhance spectator satisfaction and increase attendance.

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The Multiple Brand Personalities of David Beckham: A Case Study of the Beckham Brand, pp. 173-180
Authors: John Vincent, John S. Hill, and Jason W. Lee
Abstract: The career of David Beckham, celebrity soccer player, has had its highs and lows. But through it all, one thing has remained constant, David Beckham has rarely ventured out of the media or the public eye. For a decade, from his 1995 debut for Manchester United, his career went from strength to strength, his on-field brilliance matched only by his soaring marketing appeal in a sport that massively commercialized in the 1990s (Cashmore & Parker, 2003).

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