SMQ Issue 18:2

Contents for SMQ Issue 18:2

SMQ Profile/Interview: Michael Ball, Rock Racing, pp. 67-68
Authors: Windy Dees, Todd Hall, Samuel Todd, and Joseph Green
Abstract: An interview with Michael Ball, Owner of Rock Racing and CEO of Rock & Republic

>> Subscribe Now

Food and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Sponsorship of Sporting Events: The Link to the Obesity Issue, pp. 69-80
Authors: Karen E. Danylchuk and Eric MacIntosh
Abstract: This study’s primary purpose was to examine the opinions of consumers toward the appropriateness of food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events in relation to other products. Research of this nature is particularly timely in light of the current obesity issue because many food and beverage products contribute to the obesity problem. Phase one involved a written survey (N = 253) whereas phase two involved two focus groups (N = 12). Attitudes toward food and non-alcoholic beverage sponsorships of sporting events were more favorable than alcohol sponsorships, followed by tobacco sponsorships. However, there were differences according to demographics. Overall, sporting goods companies and sport drink and water companies were considered the most appropriate sponsors. Tobacco was the least appropriate sponsor followed by liquor and fast food. The majority of participants were not in favor of government laws to prevent less healthy food and beverage companies from sponsoring sporting events.

>> Subscribe Now

A Conjoint Approach Investigating Factors in Initial Team Preference Formation, pp. 81-91
Authors: K. Damon Aiken and Eric C. Koch
Abstract: Through the somewhat novel use of conjoint analysis, this work gains insight into fans’ initial preference formations, the weights given to team attributes, and the complexity of the decision task. Two separate studies investigate various team preference factors, including: winning percentage, presence of high-profile “all-star” players, geographic association, social affiliation, and team history within a league. Sport-category differences, gender differences, and fan identification-level differences are explored. Findings suggest fans, in general, appear to view the big three sports of football, baseball, and basketball very differently. For instance, the social affiliation factor is the most important factor in formulating preferences for baseball teams but is nearly the least important factor when evaluating football teams. Further, our results show that women and men form team preferences based on vastly different combinations of factors. While women focus more on social affiliations, men appear to place much greater emphasis on winning and the presence of high-caliber players. Finally, highly identified fans give greater importance weights to geographic associations, family connections, and a team’s sense of tradition.

>> Subscribe Now

Not Just a Party in the Parking Lot: An Exploratory Investigation of the Motives Underlying the Ritual Commitment of Football Tailgaters, pp. 92-106
Authors: Jenna Drenten, Cara Okleshen Peters, Thomas Leigh, and Candice R. Hollenbeck
Abstract: This study examines the underlying motives within the ritual of football tailgating and the influence of these motives on ritual commitment. Employing an ethnographic approach, methods include participant observation, informal conversations, and formal interviews. Findings indicate that four basic motivations and the dual nature of these motives perpetuate the tailgating ritual: involvement (preparation and participation), social interaction (camaraderie and competition), inter-temporal sentiment (retrospection and prospection), and identity (collectivism and individualism). The data illustrate that the duality of these motives perpetuates consumers’ commitment to the ritual of tailgating and thus motivates participants to continue tailgating over time. Theoretical and sport marketing implications are discussed.

>> Subscribe Now

Facenda Jr. v. NFL Films, Inc.: “Voice of God” Case Settled after Third Circuit Ruling, Octagon, pp. 107-111
Authors: Anastasios Kaburakis and Steve McKelvey
Abstract: “Pro football, the game for the ear and the eye … This sport is more than a spectacle, it is a game for all seasons … X’s and O’s on the blackboard are translated into imagination on the field.” This 13 seconds of digitally-altered audio, incorporated by National Football League Films, Inc. into “The Making of Madden NFL ’06,” lies at the heart of the lengthy legal saga between the estate of John Facenda and NFL Films (Facenda Jr. v. N.F.L. Films, Inc.., 542 F.3d 1007 (3rd Cir. 2008). The Third Circuit’s decision is instructive on three key fronts. First, it highlights the continued challenge facing courts to consistently apply the existing federal jurisprudence of trademark infringement to cases of false endorsement involving famous persons. Second, in a case of first impression for the Third Circuit, it establishes the applicable standard of proof in such false endorsement cases as a “likelihood of confusion,” as opposed to the much more rigorous standard of actual confusion.

>> Subscribe Now

Protecting the House of Under Armour, pp. 112-116
Authors: Patrick Kraft and Jason Lee
Abstract: “We’re not taking this lying down…It’s a war,” warns Ken Barker, director of apparel at Adidas America (Salter, 2005, p. 70). Baker’s statement is in reference to the rapid success in the apparel market by a young and up-and-coming Under Armour brand. The Under Armour brand dominates the performance apparel category so much (with around 75% market share) that the name has become synonymous with the product (Salter, 2005). The consistent growth of total revenue from $115.4 million in 2003 to $607.7 million in 2007 indicates the rapid success that Under Armour has experienced (Think Equity Partners, 2007).

>> Subscribe Now