SMQ Issue 17:4

Contents for SMQ Issue 17:4

SMQ Profile/Interview: Lisa Murray, Octagon, pp. 188-189
Authors: Matthew J. Robinson
Abstract: An interview with Lisa Murray, Executive Vice President/Chief Marketing Officer of Octagon.

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Sport Consumer Behavior: A Test for Group Differences on Structural Constraints, pp. 190-200
Authors: Galen T. Trail, Matthew J. Robinson, and Yu Kyoum Kim
Abstract: The focus of this study was threefold: 1) to create a comprehensive list of possible structural constraints to attending a sport event; 2) to create categories of structural constraints; and 3) to determine whether males differed from females and whether attendees differed from non-attendees on structural constraints of sport attendance. Thirteen different structural constraint dimensions were identified from factor analysis. There were significant and meaningful differences by gender. Males perceived that the opportunity for other sport entertainment, and lack of team success, were greater constraints to attending games than females. Females felt that poor weather was a bigger constraint than males. Thus, managers and marketers should show that the game is a better entertainment alternative than other sport events and also realize that if the team is not successful, those who are only spectators will need other incentives to come.

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Brand Recall and Recognition: A Comparison of Television and Sport Video Games as Presentation Modes, pp. 201-208
Authors: Patrick Walsh, Yongjae Kim, and Stephen D. Ross
Abstract: In today’s cluttered marketplace it is essential that corporations seek new and innovative ways to reach their target audience. Sport video games represent an emerging media forum for brand management as corporations are now engaging in brand placement within sport video games in an attempt to reach consumers in a non-traditional way. Despite the growth of this practice little research has been conducted to determine its effectiveness, particularly as it compares to placement within more traditional mediums. As such, the purpose of this study is to compare the recall and recognition rates for brands appearing in a sport video game and brands appearing in a televised sport contest. The results have important implications for corporate marketers and indicate that recall for brands that appeared in a televised NASCAR race were higher than those in a NASCAR themed video game; however, recognition rates were not statistically significant.

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The Effects of Vicarious Achievement and Team Identification on BIRGing and CORFing, pp. 209-217
Authors: Hyungil H. Kwon, Galen T. Trail, and Donghun Lee
Abstract: We examined the influence of vicarious achievement and team identification on BIRGing and CORFing behavior. We tested three different models (direct effects, partially mediated, and fully mediated) across two different situations: BIRGing with the winning team and CORFing with the losing team. Data were collected from 246 students. The fully mediated model fit best in the BIRGing situation and the partially mediated model fit best in the CORFing situation. We found that vicarious achievement explained 12.7% to 16.9% of the variance in team identification across situations. Vicarious achievement explained approximately 17% of the variance in CORFing behavior, but none in BIRGing. Team identification explained 30% of the variance in CORFing behavior and 41% in BIRGing. It is critical for sport teams to develop a high level of identification in their spectators. High identification makes it less likely that people will CORF and more likely that people will BIRG.

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Consumers of Color and the ‘Culture’ of Sport Attendance: Exploratory Insights, pp. 218-231
Authors: Ketra L. Armstrong
Abstract: The primary purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the sport attendance of a convenience sample of Consumers of Color (n=129) and Caucasian consumers (n=172) who resided in a large urban area on the West Coast of the United States. No significant differences were revealed in the consumers’ attitudes about sports, their level of sport fanship, or their predominant sport consumption patterns. Regarding sport attendance, no significant differences were found between the consumer groups on the importance of event accessibility or event attractiveness factors. Significant differences were revealed, however, in the importance of the event culture factors such that the event’s family appeal, entertainment, and promotions were more important to the Consumers of Color than they were to the Caucasian consumers. The results are discussed in the context of multiculturalism and the psychosocial salience of sport event cultures to Consumers of Color.

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Fantasy Sports Leagues Challenged as Illegal Gambling, pp. 232-234
Authors: Anita M. Moorman
Abstract: The fantasy sports industry continues to present interesting legal issues for sport managers. Last year, this column featured a discussion of C.B.C. Distribution and Marketing, Inc. v. Major League Baseball Advanced Media, L.P. (2006, 2007) which held that an operator of a fantasy sports league was not infringing on the players’ state law publicity rights and that the 1st Amendment to the United States Constitution preempted the players’ state law publicity rights (Grady, 2007). The case that is the subject of this column identifies yet another issue surrounding fantasy sports. In Humphrey v. Viacom (2007) the plaintiff, Humphrey, alleged that online fantasy sports leagues were engaged in an illegal gambling enterprise prohibited by state wagering and gambling laws.

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Tradition vs. Trend: A Case Study of Team Response to the Secondary Ticket Market, pp. 235-240
Authors: Joris Drayer, David K. Stotlar, and Richard L. Irwin
Abstract: The secondary ticket market includes all ticket transactions where the seller is reselling previously purchased tickets and is not officially affiliated with the league or team associated with the event (Happel & Jennings, 2002). The secondary ticket market, which has grown to a $10-15 billion industry, presents challenges as well as new opportunities for team, event, and league management alike (De Atley, 2004; Fisher, 2005; Lacy, 2005; Stecklow, 2006). For instance, fraud has traditionally been one of the major flaws of the secondary ticket market with the image of “scalpers” selling counterfeit tickets in the minds of many consumers. While this issue impacts secondary market credibility, it also directly affects team and league operations that ultimately have to handle these fraudulent tickets. As a means of combating the availability of fraudulent tickets, Happel and Jennings recommended that primary ticket distributors create non-transferable ticket instruments so that tickets cannot change hands without proper authorization. The 2006 World Cup was among the first events to implement such an instrument as each ticket included the name and passport number of the original ticket purchaser of the along with a small computer chip that links buyer and ticket (“Free- Market Fleecing,” 2006).

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