SMQ Issue 17:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 17:1

SMQ Profile/Interview: Larry Needle, Philadelphia Sports Congress, pp. 4-5
Authors: Matthew J. Robinson
Abstract: An interview with Larry Needle, Executive Director of the Philadelphia Sports Congress.

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Motivational Profiles of Sport Fans of Different Sports, pp. 6-19
Authors: Daniel L. Wann, Frederick G. Grieve, Ryan K. Zapalac, and Dale G. Pease
Abstract: The current investigation examined sport type differences in eight fan motives: escape, economic (i.e., gambling), eustress (i.e., positive arousal), self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, family, and aesthetics. Participants (final sample N = 886) completed a questionnaire packet assessing their level of fandom and motivation for consuming one of 13 target sports: professional baseball, college football, professional football, figure skating, gymnastics, professional hockey, boxing, auto racing, tennis, professional basketball, college basketball, professional wrestling, and golf. Sports were classified into three different dichotomies: individual (e.g., figure skating, golf) versus team (e.g., professional baseball, college basketball); aggressive (e.g., professional wrestling, professional football) versus nonaggressive (e.g., professional baseball, figure skating); and stylistic (e.g., figure skating, gymnastics) versus nonstylistic (e.g., professional hockey, tennis). In addition to differences in target sports (e.g., golf versus professional football), statistical analyses indicated a number of sport type differences. Aesthetic motivation was found to be particularly prominent in individual sports, while scores were greater for team sports in eustress, self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family. Aesthetic motivation scores were also high in nonaggressive sports, while economic, eustress, group affiliation, and entertainment were higher for team sports. Finally, aesthetic motivation was quite high for stylistic sports, while economic, eustress, self-esteem, group affiliation, entertainment, and family motivation scores were higher for nonstylistic sports. Only one motive, escape, was not found to differ in at least one sport type comparison. The discussion centers on potential explanations for the sport type differences as well as on marketing implications and suggestions for future research.

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A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Brand Community: An Empirical Investigation, pp. 20-29
Authors: P. Raj Devasagayam and Cheryl L. Buff
Abstract: This research extends the study of brand community by conceptualizing and empirically investigating membership and integration in a brand community. A convenience- based random sample responded to surveys pertaining to brand community built around a basketball program on a small college campus in the Northeast. Empirical results provide valid and useful scales to measure brand community as a multidimensional construct based on spatial, temporal, and exchange characteristics. Characteristics of the focal product and brand community are discussed relative to the typology of membership proposed in the multidimensional brand community model.

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Difference in Interrelationship between Spectators’ Motives and Behavioral Intentions Based on Emotional Attachment, pp. 30-43
Authors: Gi-Yong Koo and Robin Hardin
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to segment spectators based on emotional attachment toward team, university, coach, and player, and to examine whether different groups of people classified by emotional attachment demonstrate different interrelationships between motives and behavioral intentions in attending sporting events. The results revealed that the feasibility of two clusters is derived from emotional attachments and those two groups demonstrate different interrelationships between spectators’ motives and behavioral intentions, respectively. In conclusion, this study can provide a baseline for sport marketers (1) to develop a usable segmentation structure based on emotional attachment that delivers the intended message to the targeted sport consumers, and (2) to determine what strategies they need to adopt in order to retain their customers once motives for each segment have been uncovered.

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An Examination of the Psychological and Consumptive Behaviors of Sport Video Gamers, pp. 44-53
Authors: Yongjae Kim, Patrick Walsh, and Stephen D. Ross
Abstract: Despite the growing popularity of sport video games (SVGs), particularly as it relates to their growth as a marketing tool, there has been relatively little research on the psychology and behavior of the sport video gamer. The current study examined the psychological and consumptive behavior of sport video gamers across different levels of game play. Data from 239 gamers was collected from four popular online video game sites. This study provides evidence that sport video gamers are sport fans that engage in a variety of sport consumptive behaviors. The findings also suggest that sport video gamers seek a unique outlet for needs that might not be fulfilled in a real life sporting context, and that heavy gamers are typically highly identified sport fans who engage in more sport consumptive behavior than the light gamer who has less connection with the team. The findings of the study provide researchers and marketers with important implications and benchmark data for future research to explore the psychology of sport consumers in a virtual environment and the potential of videogames as a marketing and communication tool.

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NASCAR Puts the Brakes on AT&T: Sponsorship Conflicts of Interest and Contractual Rights, pp. 54-56
Authors: Marion E. Hambrick and Anita M. Moorman
Abstract: In 2007 AT&T Mobility sought an injunction against the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), enjoining the racing organization from preventing the display of its logo on the Richard Childress Racing (RCR) #31 racecar (AT&T v. NASCAR, 2007). Although the parties settled out of court, this case is indicative of an increasing number of sponsorship disputes arising in the sport industry. This dispute reflects the growing conflicts between competing sponsors, and it further emphasizes the challenges faced by sport properties, event promoters, participants, and sponsors to effectively create and protect sponsorship programs. Sponsorships provide a beneficial source of funding. Sport managers must protect their interests and minimize conflicts of interest to maximize event profitability and success.

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The Charlotte Bobcats: (Re) Launching a New (Old) NBA Franchise, pp. 57-62
Authors: Dallass Branch, Jr
Abstract: In 2002, the NBA’s Charlotte Hornets exited the Queen City for greener pastures in New Orleans, thus closing the book on a tumultuous 14-year relationship with their host city and fans. Their tenure in Charlotte was characterized by an NBA record for sold-out attendance from 1988-1996, a lengthy and nasty “divorce” with ownership starting in 1996, and a near complete falling-out with fans from 1997-2002 (“Losing the buzz,” 2002). In that span, average game attendance dropped from 23,000 in 1996 to 11,000 in 2002, even though the franchise made the NBA playoffs for the second straight year (“2002 NBA playoffs,” 2002; “Losing the buzz,” 2002; “Hornets history,” 2005). Professional basketball in Charlotte got a revival in fall 2003, as the NBA awarded the city an expansion team and named Robert Johnson, founder and CEO of Black Entertainment Television (BET), as professional sports’ first sole minority owner (Schoenfeld, 2002). This newest NBA franchise, armed with new ownership, a new name (Charlotte Bobcats), new team colors (blue & orange), a privately owned television network, and corporate and civic funding for a new, state-of-the-art downtown arena, would attempt to rekindle the magic again in Charlotte for professional basketball fans. This descriptive and historical marketing case study presents the positioning strategies utilized by this new NBA franchise to rekindle professional basketball fans’ interest in and the market’s support for the Charlotte Bobcats. Specifically, this case study examines the Bobcats’ and market consumer analyses vis-à-vis the prescribed Marketing Management Process (MMP) that sport organizations should utilize in developing market positioning strategies to target consumers (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2000). This case study provides insight into the strengths and weakness of the franchise’s initial efforts in assessing and evaluating the Charlotte market and the professional basketball consumer. Did the Bobcats engage in proper “due diligence” while launching their new product in the Charlotte Demographic Marketing Area (DMA)? What performance metrics were used to assess the product’s launch? Finally, given the existing market conditions and consumer attitudes, was the Bobcats’ initial “product position or concept” viable?

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