SMQ Issue 16:4

Contents for SMQ Issue 16:4

SMQ Profile/Interview: Kevin Foley, Position Sports, pp. 188-189
Authors: Matthew J. Robinson
Abstract: An interview with Kevin Foley, president and founder of Position Sports.

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Using the Critical Incident Technique to Understand Critical Aspects of the Minor League Spectator’s Experience, pp. 190-198
Authors: T. Christopher Greenwell, Janghyuk Lee, and Dylan Naeger
Abstract: Customer complaints and comments provide managers with an important source of information, and an analysis of these critical incidents provides additional insight into which aspects of the spectator experience customers identify as being vital. Using the critical incidents technique (CIT), data on 1,111 positive and negative aspects of the spectator experience were collected from 831 customers at two different minor league sporting events. Incidents were categorized to identify aspects both favorably and unfavorably influencing customers. Findings identify which aspects of the spectator experience are most relevant to spectators at minor league sporting events, distinguish aspects that satisfy customers from those that dissatisfy customers, and suggest critical aspects are not the same for customers of different sports or for different demographic groups. Further, this study illustrates the use of CIT to assess customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction in spectator sports.

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Consumer Satisfaction with an Action Sports Event, pp. 199-208
Authors: Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett, and James Zhang
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of service quality, satisfaction, and future intentions of attendees at a large-scale action sports event. More specifically, effects of core service quality and peripheral service quality on satisfaction and future intention were examined in an action sports event setting. Structural equation modeling was utilized to investigate the effects of the two service components on satisfaction and future intentions. Respondents (N = 2,297) were satisfied with the event and reported positive responses toward services provided by event managers. Similarly, respondents reported that they were likely to return to the event in the future. Findings suggest core service quality and peripheral service quality to be significant predictors of satisfaction. Additionally, peripheral service quality and satisfaction were found to be significantly related to future intentions. However, core service quality was not significantly related to future intention; yet, it had an indirect influence on future intentions.

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Advertising Portrayals of Indy’s Female Drivers: A Perspective on the Succession from Guthrie to Patrick, pp. 209-217
Authors: Jacquelyn Cuneen, Nancy E. Spencer, Sally R. Ross, and Artemisia Apostolopoulou
Abstract: This study presents a perspective on advertisements featuring female drivers that appeared in the official Indianapolis 500 programs from 1977 to 2006. Specifically, content analysis was used to track the succession of female drivers’ depictions in the programs over the 29-year period from Janet Guthrie’s rookie year to Danica Patrick’s second race appearance. Ads were analyzed for pose, connotation, role portrayal, and camera angle. Descriptive statistics indicated that prior to 2003, the drivers’ (Guthrie, Lyn St. James, Sarah Fisher, and Patrick) ad depictions were most often strong and athletic or displaying athleticism, and their photographs were shot from straight, even planes. A transition began in 2003, when an ad featuring Fisher was somewhat sexually suggestive in her role portrayal. The advent of Patrick, however, substantially changed all aspects, particularly portrayals, as she was often photographed in sexually suggestive manners. Thus, Patrick’s arrival essentially changed the treatment of females appearing in the official program ads, when she was objectified as compared with Guthrie, St. James, and the majority of Fisher’s ad portrayals.

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A Defection Analysis of Lapsed Season Ticket Holders: A Consumer and Organizational Study, pp. 218-229
Authors: Heath McDonald and Constantino Stavros
Abstract: This paper reports on a four-stage study that investigated the motivations and future intentions of recently lapsed members (season-ticket holders) of professional sports organizations, and the marketing responses of those organizations to the issue of customer retention. Survey responses from over 1,000 recently lapsed members across five large sporting clubs were collected. A further study on one club was then conducted to compare attitudes and demographics of lapsed members to those who renewed. The responses suggests that although these lapsed members report that they joined to financially support and feel more involved with the club, they let their membership lapse primarily due to an inability to attend games. Despite joining for intangible, altruistic reasons, it seems that if these members could not get to games, they believed that the membership was not worth maintaining. These members were satisfied with the membership; however, measures of overall level of satisfaction had only a weak positive relationship with the likelihood of members rejoining in the future. These sport organizations were greatly concerned by lapsed members but have only ad hoc relationship marketing strategies in place to either prevent members lapsing or renew lapsed members.

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Sport Marketing and the Law: Fantasy Stats Case Tests Limits of Intellectual Property Protection in the Digital Age, pp. 230-232
Authors: John Grady
Abstract: Fantasy sports have become an increasingly popular outlet for average sports fans desiring “ownership” in a fantasy professional sports league. According to the Fantasy Sports Trade Association (2006), 15-18 million players participate annually in fantasy sports leagues. “With fantasy sports generating an estimated $100 million in revenue and growing at a 7%-10% [rate] annually, unions and leagues see a lucrative opportunity to cash in on players’ names and performance” (McCarthy, 2006. p. 1). Given the driving force behind fantasy sports is the combined use of player names and statistics, a novel legal issue is presented: Who owns the rights to the combination of player names and statistics when used for commercial purposes—the player, the league, or the public? The answer to this question raises several facets of intellectual property protection and is representative of the broader problems of protecting intellectual property in the digital age (Baldas, 2005).

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Case Study: Game Misconduct: Service Error Recovery Strategy, pp. 233-236
Authors: Michael D. Musante
Abstract: Mary Davis is the Vice President of Ticket Operations for the NBA’s Cincinnati Devils basketball team. As Mary walked to her office from the breakfast meeting she could not help but wonder how the fan base would respond if the proposed ticket increase for next season was implemented. While there were still eight home games left in the season, it was clear that many of the fans had given up on the team. She feared the announcement of a ticket increase would further erode fan attendance.

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