SMQ Issue 16:2

Contents for SMQ Issue 16:2

SMQ Profile/Interview: Les Lombardi, Anaconda Sports, pp. 68-69
Authors: Matthew J. Robinson
Abstract: An interview with Les Lombardi, vice president of marketing for Anaconda Sports.

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Consumer Satisfaction with a Periodic Reoccurring Sport Event and the Moderating Effect of Motivations, pp. 70-81
Authors: Laura Martínez Caro and Jose Antonio Martínez García
Abstract: This research has focused on the evaluation of the consumer satisfaction process in a sport event. A popular athletic cross urban race, periodically organized by a City Council, has served as the framework for the study of cognitive and affective elements that drives satisfaction judgment and the moderator effect of sport motivations. A causal model is tested and the results show that satisfaction is primarily driven by an affective factor (arousal), and the effect of pleasure is not significant. The cognitive element is also important for determining satisfaction and future behavior intentions, and all of the antecedents are independent in the satisfaction process. Sport motivations have a moderating effect on the relationship between disconfirmation and satisfaction. In addition, satisfaction is an emotional evaluation for the highly motivated individuals. Implications for both practical and theoretical research are discussed.

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An Examination of Marketing Resource Allocation in NCAA Division I Athletics, pp. 82-92
Authors: T. Christopher Greenwell, Daniel F. Mahony, and Damon P. S. Andrew
Abstract: Administrators at NCAA Division I institutions have multiple sport programs to market, yet resource limitations challenge these administrators to identify efficient and equitable resource allocation strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine how NCAA Division I marketing administrators allocate marketing resources to their various sport programs. Three norms of exchange: rationality, distributive justice, and power, are used as a conceptual framework, and primary marketing administrators at NCAA Division I institutions were surveyed. Results revealed past results and perceived scarcity of both monetary and non-monetary resources predicted allocation norms used to distribute marketing resources. Marketing administrators who agreed with distributive justice as a resource allocation norm were likely to allocate more monetary and nonmonetary resources to women’s sports. Administrators agreeing that power influenced marketing resource allocations were more likely to allocate both monetary resources and non-monetary resources to men’s sports over women’s sports.

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Comparative Analysis of Sport Consumer Motivations between South Korea and Japan, pp. 93-105
Authors: Jung-uk Won and Kaoru Kitamura
Abstract: This study aimed to refine and further develop existing motivation scales (i.e., MSSC by Trail and James, 2001; SII by Funk, Mahony, Nakazawa, & Hirakawa, 2001) in a cross-national context, and to examine differences of descriptive variables (e.g., demographics, attendance frequency) and spectator motives between South Korean and Japanese professional soccer spectators. We confirmed that the refined motivation scales we developed were valid and that they reliably measured Korean and Japanese soccer spectators’ motives. We also found that there were several differences in demographics, attendance frequency, team identification, and spectator motives. For example, Korean spectators were significantly higher in motivation related to personal benefits (family, player, and drama) than Japanese ones. Whereas, Japanese spectators were significantly higher in motivation related to the sport (physical skill and entertainment) and self-definition (vicarious achievement and team identification) than Korean spectators.

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Assessing Brand Associations for Intercollegiate Ice Hockey, pp. 106-114
Authors: Stephen D. Ross, Hyejin Bang, and Seungbum Lee
Abstract: The present study uses a rigorous procedure to examine the applicability, validity, and reliability of the Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS) in the context of intercollegiate ice hockey. Results from a sample of 349 season ticket holders from an intercollegiate ice hockey team indicated that the TBAS instrument was indeed valid in the collegiate sport setting. Given the functionality of the TBAS in the area of intercollegiate sport, university athletic marketers should be actively assessing the associations pertaining to specific teams. Furthermore, through an understanding of team brand associations comes the ability to examine the impact of image on important revenue streams needed to offset shrinking operational budgets. Suggestions for future research include the continued purification and validation of the instrument, as well as replications among other samples.

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Sport Marketing and the Law: Will the Real 12th Man Please Stand Up? Texas A&M and Seattle Seahawks Settle Dispute over Right to Identify Fans as ‘12th Man’, pp. 115-117
Authors: Matthew T. Brown, David Matthew Zuefle, and Paul J. Batista
Abstract: Developing brand equity has been a focus of sport marketers over the past 15 years (Milne & McDonald, 1999). Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton (2000) stated that brand equity can be built through tangible product extensions, distinct trademarks, history, tradition, festival, and spectacle. In attempting to increase brand equity through a change in the building blocks of brand equity or antecedents of equity (Gladden, Milne & Sutton, 1998; Gladden & Milne, 1999), legal conflict may arise. For example, on August 26, 1993, Ohio University attempted to improve its brand equity when it filed a trademark application for the mark “Ohio.” Officials at Ohio University were concerned with a study that found that there was vast confusion within the national media relating to the identity of the University. Their main concern was to ensure the media realized that Ohio University was not The Ohio State University. More recently, Texas A&M University and the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League (NFL) have disputed the rights to the phrase “12th Man.” Texas A&M University claimed that it owned a common law trademark right to “12th Man” under Texas law and held registered trademarks to the term granted by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (U.S. Regs. 1,612,053 and 1,948,306). The University further alleged that the Seahawks intentionally infringed upon and diluted the distinctive quality of the term “12th Man.”

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Case Study: An Introduction to Freeloading: Campus-Area Ambush Marketing, pp. 118-122
Authors: Aubrey Kent and Richard M. Campbell, Jr
Abstract: On and around college campuses, many businesses display posters and banners, paint their storefronts with school mascots, and prominently use school team colors in promotional efforts. While many of these businesses are sponsors or members of school sanctioned booster organizations, some are not. Businesses that are not paying to be affiliated with the school, yet engage in such activities, seemingly fall within the definition of ambush marketing. We have labeled this distinct type of ambush marketing as “freeloading,” as companies realize benefits without paying for them, yet are not prohibited from doing so by the school. Data gathered in the vicinity of three college campuses indicate that such practices are not only prevalent but are purposeful in their intent. The objectives of presenting this case are to begin a discussion with regards to 1) the existence of this specific type of ambush marketing, 2) its effect on paying sponsors, and 3) its repercussions for collegiate athletic department marketers.

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