SMQ Issue 16:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 16:1

SMQ Profile/Interview: Tom Hof, pp. 4-6
Authors: Joe Cobbs
Abstract: An interview with Tom Hof, senior associate athletic director, external relations, The Ohio State University.

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Expectations, Industry Standards, And Customer Satisfaction In The Student Ticketing Process, pp. 7-14
Authors: T. Christopher Greenwell
Abstract: This study explores the effects of expectations and industry standards on customer satisfaction in the student ticketing process in intercollegiate athletics. Data were collected from 378 students attending three NCAA Division I institutions, and an experimental design was used to determine which type of expectations best predicted customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction and how information about industry standards affected satisfaction levels. Findings suggest sport customers make satisfaction judgments based on what they think should be in a policy rather than what they think will be in a policy, indicating marketers need to work to understand what students would ideally want in a ticket policy. Further, students’ dissatisfaction lessened when presented with additional information about how the policy fit within industry standards; therefore, sport marketers need to educate sport consumers about industry standards in order to keep them from developing unreal expectations.

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Segmenting Sport Fans Using Brand Associations: A Cluster Analysis, pp. 15-24
Authors: Stephen D. Ross
Abstract: The present study uses cluster analysis to identify segments of spectators based upon the brand associations held for a professional sport team. A secondary purpose is to identify potential similarities and differences among identified segments based upon demographic variables. Results from a sample of 662 ticket holders from a National Basketball Association (NBA) team indicated that the respondents could be segmented into two distinct groups based upon the perceptions of the sport brand. Results also indicated that the members of each spectator cluster could be further distinguished based upon their gender, educational level, and household income. Discussion and implications focus on how sport managers might interpret these results, and how managers may use comparable cluster analysis techniques to serve consumers in an increasingly competitive marketplace.

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Exploring the Growing Interest in the Olympic Winter Games, pp. 25-35
Authors: Kashef Majid, Ramdas Chandra, and Annamma Joy
Abstract: The spectator audience for the Olympic Winter Games has been increasing around the world. This phenomenon is highlighted in countries such as Mexico, Brazil, and South Africa (termed “non-traditional” markets) that rarely participate in the Winter Games, yet choose to watch them. To explore this phenomenon we interviewed key figures involved with the Olympic Movement. Our intention was to identify key themes from the text of the interviews and put these themes together to form a framework that would explain the growing interest in the Olympic Winter Games. The results showed that the Olympic brand and the experience of watching the Games make the Olympics very appealing. We also found that key stories (myths) and heroes strengthened both the brand and the experience of watching the Games. However, what sets the Olympics apart from other sporting events is the concept of hope. The Olympics embody what we want to see in the world (fairness, togetherness, etc.), and with each Olympic Games our hope for seeing these concepts applied in life increases. The concept of hope sets the Olympic Games apart from other sporting events and allows the Olympic Winter Games to reach audiences in non-traditional markets.

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Foreseeability and Flying T-Shirts: Palsgraf Revisited, pp. 36-37
Authors: Linda A. Sharp
Abstract: The beauty of tort law is that it retains an inherent flexibility responsive to societal developments and new technologies. Whether we are dealing with a horsedrawn carriage run amuck or a modern-day marketing promotion using a t-shirt cannon, courts still address the essential and fundamental issues of duty, breach of duty, causation and damages. A recent New York case illustrates a court’s reliance on long-established precedent as it decided the case of the flying t-shirts.

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The University of Notre Dame: An Examination of the Impact and Evaluation of Brand Equity in NCAA Division I-A Football, pp. 38-48
Authors: Jennifer E. Bruening and Min Yong Lee
Abstract: The purpose of this case study is to examine the impact of Tyrone Willingham¡¯s tenure as head football coach on the brand equity of the University of Notre Dame. Brand equity is traditionally viewed as a cyclical phenomenon (Gladden, Milne, & Sutton, 1998) with longitudinal examinations being the preferred method of evaluation. This case study focuses on a three-year time period for reasons grounded in the literature and, as in this particular case, the practical consideration that Tyrone Willingham¡¯s tenure at the University of Notre Dame lasted three years. Notre Dame University¡¯s brand equity can be intensified locally and expanded globally given its long-standing tradition of football and, as of the beginning of the 2004 season, Willingham¡¯s distinction as being one of only five African American NCAA Division I-A football coaches. The team, the football program, the University of Notre Dame community (including students, faculty, staff, administrators, alumni), and the community beyond the Notre Dame campus are evaluated as part of this brand equity equation. (N.B. All names have been changed to protect the confidentiality of those who participated in interviews for this study).

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The Strategic Sponsorship Process in a Non-Profit Sport Organization, pp. 49-59
Authors: Alison Doherty and Martha Murray
Abstract: Synchro Canada is the non-profit national governing body for synchronized swimming in Canada. It is one of 54 national sport organizations (NSO) supported by Sport Canada, the federal government agency responsible for amateur sport in Canada, and one of 39 NSOs that compete at the Olympic level. At the time of the study, Synchro Canada was run by a professional staff of nine individuals located in the national office in Gloucester, Ontario, and the National Coach and Team Manager located at the National High Performance Training Centre in Etobicoke, Ontario. The organization was guided by an eight-member national volunteer Board of Directors (see Appendix A). Synchro Canada offered programs and services in sport development, coaching, marketing, national team, and officials (see Appendix B). There were over 10,000 registered members with Synchro Canada, and it was estimated that there were an additional 10,000 participants in local programs. Synchronized swimmers were 99% females, although it was believed that interest by male participants was growing (see Appendix B). Synchro Canada performed its sponsorship activities in-house, rather than contracting out to an external agency. The sport’s product had qualities that enhanced the likelihood of sponsorship success: Synchronized swimming is an Olympic sport, and Canadian swimmers have had a very successful international medal record (see Appendix C). According to Sport Canada, Synchro Canada’s sponsorship activities were relatively successful in comparison to other national sport organizations, based on percentage of sponsorship budget actually attained in a given year.

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