SMQ Issue 15:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 15:3

SMQ Profile/Interview: Peter Carlisle
Authors:
Abstract: An interview with Peter Carlisle, Director, Olympics & Action Sports, Octagon

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Affinity Credit Cards as Relationship Marketing Tools: A Conjoint Analytic Exploration of Combined Product Attributes
Authors: Scott A. Jones, Tracy A. Suter
Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory research was to gain a greater understanding of the importance consumers assign to the product attributes of one of the most visible relationship marketing programs: affinity credit cards. Drawing on relationship marketing, symbolic consumption, and social identity, the authors explore the importance of attributes when choosing an affinity credit card. Three studies at different universities determined the ranked importance to student consumers of the background logo, the beneficiary, attributes such as annual fees and interest rates, and the financial institutions. Respondents placed most importance on the beneficiary, supporting self-concept aspects of relationship marketing. Background was of low importance, although students preferred athletic logos. The financial institution was the least important attribute. The information from this research is useful for credit card issuers and the managers of institutional or organizational brands, particularly during the negotiation of affinity card relationships.

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Consumer Awareness of Sponsorship at Grassroots Sport Events
Authors: Kimberly S. Miloch, Keith W. Lambrecht
Abstract: As the nature and motivations of sponsors have evolved, sponsorship of grassroots and niche sport events has grown. The purpose of this research was to assess consumer awareness of sponsorship at a grassroots and niche sport event through an examination of recall and recognition rates and purchase intentions. Data were gathered using traditional methods of consumer awareness assessment. Recall and recognition rates in this study were comparable but somewhat lower than those noted in studies of Olympic sport or mega-sport events. Recall and recognition rates appeared to be influenced by location of signage, activation, and level of familiarity with the event. Age appeared to influence purchase intentions. Recommendations to increase sponsor awareness at this level of sport are provided.

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Looking at Gender Differences Through the Lens of Sport Spectators
Authors: Lynn L. Ridinger, Daniel C. Funk
Abstract: This paper explores common assumptions about the intrinsic differences between male and female consumers within a subset of leisure consumption ?sport spectating. This research utilized the Sports Interest Inventory (SII) (Funk, Mahony & Ridinger, 2002) to examine differences between spectators (N = 959) attending men’s and women’s basketball games at a NCAA Division I institution. MANOVA results revealed nine differences for Team-Gender, seven differences for Spectator-Gender, and three interaction effects. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that three core interest factors (university pride, team interest, and vicarious achievement) explained a significant proportion of variance in commitment and attendance behavior for fans of both teams. However, a number of interest factors related to Team-Gender and Spectator-Gender emerged to differentially explain levels of commitment and behavior. The results indicate that while there are some commonalities that motivate people to attend college basketball games involving athletes of each gender, there are also differences that make women’s basketball unique from men’s basketball.

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Relationship Marketing and Partnerships in Not-for-Profit Sport in Australia
Authors: John Tower, Leo Jago, Margaret Deery
Abstract: Certain constructs influence relationships within community organizations and the not-for-profit sport sector. This qualitative study identified influences on relationships and determinants of successful and unsuccessful partnerships and determined the application of 28 constructs derived from literature on relationship marketing, education partnerships, and health and community service partnerships. Results of interviews with 15 personnel from Australian sport, education, and health and community service agencies indicated that partnerships achieve goals that the individual partners could not achieve individually, foster innovation, and share knowledge and expertise. A key feature of successful relationships is complementary expertise and knowledge. Factors contributing to an unsuccessful relationship include poor communication, incompatible management styles, lack of commitment (including time), staff turnover, and lack of satisfaction. Key constructs that influence relationships are appropriate partners, commitment, communication, cultural/management style, funding/resource allocation, and satisfaction. This study also identified the need for community agencies to make conscious effort to manage their relationships. Not-for-profit sport organizations did not practice relationship management and tended to take the development of their relationships for granted. Focusing on the constructs that influence relationships can assist sport managers to derive more positive outcomes from their relationships.

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‘Dawg Pound’ Decision Provides Guidance for Fan Group-Related Trademarks
Authors: Steve M. McKelvey
Abstract: The emphasis on licensing as a source of revenue for sport organizations, coupled with the creativity of sport marketers and their fans, serves to highlight the importance of securing trademark protection for unique slogans and nicknames that emerge in connection with a particular sport organization. Perhaps one of the most well-known of these team-related fan groups is the Cleveland Browns’ “Dawg Pound,” a phrase used since the early 1980s to describe the enthusiastic Browns fans who dressed up (and woofed) like dogs. Members of the “Dawg Pound” sat together in the bleachers of the old Municipal Stadium, and today sit together in the east end zone of the new Cleveland Browns stadium. Ownership of the phrase “Dawg Pound,” as well as the issue of trademark abandonment, was at the heart of a lawsuit recently decided in federal district court for the Southern District of New York in February 2006 (Hawaii-Pacific Apparel Group, Inc. v. Cleveland Browns Football Company LLC, 2006).

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Nike’s Corporate Interest Lives Strong: A Case of Cause-Related Marketing and Leveraging in Sport Marketing
Authors: Colleen McGlone, Nathan Martin
Abstract: The use of cause-related marketing (CRM) in sport appears to be increasing in popularity. These campaigns often create win-win situations for all parties involved. However, utilizing CRM campaigns in the sport arena does not come without risk and may ultimately limit the return on investment (ROI) for which many corporations seek. There are many illustrations of CRM campaigns in sport, one of which is the Live Strong campaign. Through this campaign, the Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) has attracted a great deal of attention and media exposure creating both increased awareness and additional resources for the LAF. In May of 2004, Lance Armstrong approached long time sponsorship partner Nike, Inc. to assist him with the launch of the Live Strong fundraising campaign. Live Strong centers on people showing their support for the LAF by buying and wearing a yellow wristband. Nike agreed to support the then five-time Tour de France winner, ultimately providing the financial resources to underwrite the production and distribution of the first five million yellow Live Strong wristbands, as well as a provide a one million dollar cash gift directly to the LAF. Since the Live Strong campaign’s inception, over 47 million wristbands have been sold to benefit the LAF. This case study demonstrates the use of CRM using the Live Strong campaign as an applied model. The case illustrates some of the potential benefits and risks involved in CRM, as well as addresses ethical dilemmas that may arise when these campaigns are being considered by both corporations and non-profit organizations.

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