SMQ Issue 15:2

Contents for SMQ Issue 15:2

SMQ Profile/Interview: Dan Derian
Authors:
Abstract: An interview with Dan Derian, Senior Director of Research, Major League Baseball

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Visual Ethnography of On-site Sport Sponsorship Activation: LG Action Sports Championship
Authors: J. Andrew Choi, David K. Stotlar, S. Roger Park
Abstract: Sporting events have increasingly become the epicenter of sponsorship or logo showcasing and the concept of sponsorship has changed the way sport marketers view sporting events ever so drastically. The amount of logo exposure at sporting venues determines the fine line between instant elation and intolerable anguish for sport marketers. Do consumers then actually notice the multitude of logos that the sponsors bombard them with at these sporting events? The purpose of this study is to investigate what an average spectator at a sporting event visually records in a two-hour span. The research question is “Do on-site sponsor programs indeed match the interests of the fans??Seventeen participants took photos of the “most interesting or meaningful scenes?at an action sports championship in September 2004 and shared the photos with the researchers in one-on-one interviews.

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Effect of Perceived Sport Event and Sponsor Image Fit on Consumers?Cognition, Affect, and Behavioral Intentions
Authors: Gi-Yong Koo, Jerome Quarterman, Leisa Flynn
Abstract: The purposes of this study were to: a) examine the effect of perceived brand/sport event image fit on consumers?cognitive and affective responses, and b) examine the effects of consumers?cognitive and affective responses on purchase intentions. Data were collected from different participants under two conditions, pre-test and main test. The pre-test stage included 162 participants and the main test stage included 452 participants who watched the 2003 College Bowl Championship Series. The results revealed that participants in the high image fit group had more positive corporate image and brand attitude in relation to sponsors than those in the low image fit group. In addition, the participants in the high image fit group demonstrated an increased likelihood of correctly recognizing a brand with a sponsor. Finally, the effects of consumers?cognitive and affective responses were significant in relation to intentions to purchase. These results have implications for both sport marketing industry and research to apply the efficacy of consumers?perceptions of brand/sport event image fit in accomplishing sport sponsorship goals.

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Measuring the Marketing Communication Activations of a Professional Tennis Tournament
Authors: Gregg Bennett, George B. Cunningham, Windy Dees
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to assess the marketing communication activations of a professional tennis tournament. Results indicate that respondents were satisfied with the marketing communications activations chosen by managers and marketers of the event. For example, most spectators (77%) learned of the event from television, which was their preferred media for becoming aware of the tournament. In addition, most spectators (94.6%) believed that it was good for companies, and specifically those based in Houston or Texas, to sponsor the tournament. The spectators also indicated that such support for the tournament was important in shaping their attitudes toward the sponsoring organization (61.7%) and their purchase decisions of sponsors?goods and services (54.9%). The post-tournament questionnaire also revealed that sponsorship recognition was high, as the least recognized sponsor was correctly identified by 65.4% of the respondents. Most spectators (78.4%) indicated that they intended to attend the tournament in 2004.

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Relationship Marketing in Sports: A Functional Approach
Authors: Colleen C. Bee, Lynn R. Kahle
Abstract: This paper examines how and why consumers develop, enter into, and maintain relationships in a sports marketing context. This paper presents a framework for understanding how and why consumers engage in relationship marketing. Based on Kelman’s functional approach to attitude change, this framework presents three qualitatively different levels for understanding relationship formation and maintenance: (a) compliance is superficial, temporary, and often the result of external influence; (b) identification is related to selfesteem and image enhancement of sport consumers; and (c) internalization is the result of values similarity. Internalization is more likely to result in a long-term relationship.

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False Advertising and Celebrity Endorsements: Where’s My Script?
Authors: Anita M. Moorman
Abstract: Celebrity endorsements in the sport industry continue to increase both in number and value. For example, sport celebrities ascribe their names to such products as soap, soda, cars, underwear, financial planning services, internet services, bubble gum, and a host of sport specific products (shoes, apparel, sports equipment, etc.). These product endorsements can earn a professional athlete substantial sums of money, and for many professional athletes they can actually earn more from endorsements than their player salaries or earnings. However, endorsements are a form of advertising subject to the regulation and oversight of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Section 12 of the Federal Trade Commission Act declares unlawful the dissemination of false advertisements, by certain means, which are likely to induce the purchase of food, drugs, devices, services, or cosmetics. 15 U.S.C. § 52. The dissemination of such false advertisements is an unfair or deceptive act.

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Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo —A “Super” Battleground for the Cola Wars?
Authors: Steve McKelvey
Abstract: It was March 31, 2003, and the Coca-Cola Classic brand management team was excited about enjoying another Major League Baseball opening day at Turner Field against the visiting Montreal Expos. As the team drove out to Turner Field, most of the talk centered on the Atlanta Braves’ prospects for the upcoming season. Jill Smith, however, had her mind on football—specifically, the 2004 Super Bowl in Houston—only 10 months away. Although Coca-Cola was no longer the official soft drink sponsor of the National Football League—rival Pepsi-Cola had outbid Coca-Cola for those rights in 2002—Coca-Cola was an official team sponsor of the Houston Texans, the hosts of the upcoming Super Bowl.

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