SMQ Issue 14:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 14:1

Vertical Extension of Sport Organizations: The Case of the National Basketball Development League (NBDL)
Authors: Artemisia Apostolopoulou
Abstract: Vertical extension is a brand management technique that describes a process of introducing a new brand (i.e., product or service) at a higher or lower price and quality level. One such case is the National Basketball Development League (NBDL) that was launched by the National Basketball Association (NBA) in November 2001. Kim and Lavack (1996) studied the use of distancing techniques (i.e., ¡°linguistic¡± and/or ¡°graphical¡± manipulations) for successful introduction of vertical extensions (p. 29). The purpose of the present case study was to examine the use of those techniques with the NBDL. The results suggest that the NBA used a number of distancing techniques to create an association with the new league that was closer at times and distant at other times. This case study provides a description of those elements, as well as recommendations for sport brands considering vertical extension.

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Access Now v. Southwest Airlines: A Net Loss for Web Users with Disabilities
Authors: Damon P. S. Andrew, John Grady
Abstract: The Internet has grown faster than all other forms of electronic technology and all other mediums of communication (Berthon, Pitt, & Watson, 1996). The Harris Poll indicated the number of adult Internet users in the US has steadily risen over the past nine years from 17.5 million in 1995 to 156 million in 2004 (Taylor, 2004). Indeed, while only 9% of U.S. adults were online in 1995, 73% were online in 2004. Studies have shown that some of the most common activities among those who use the Internet “often?or “very often?include getting information about products and services (41%), getting information about hobbies or special interests (36%), surfing the web to explore new and different sites (32%), and making travel plans or arrangements (15%) (Taylor, 2004). The aforementioned activities should be of interest to the sport marketer who prepares Web site content for sport organizations. Recent research has indicated that sport marketers have yet to tap the full potential of web sites as an effective marketing tool (Beech, Chadwick, & Tapp, 2000; Brown, 2003; Kahle & Meeske, 1999) despite the numerous associated benefits cited by sport practitioners (Casper & Finley, 2004).

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The Influence of Personality Traits on Sports Fan Identification
Authors: D. Todd Donavan, Brad D. Carlson, Mickey Zimmerman
Abstract: Past research demonstrates the positive effect of identification on sports fans. In this study, the researchers investigate some dispositional antecedents of identification. Using a sports context, the authors test the influence of basic personality traits on the mediating variable of need for affiliation and the outcome variable identification. The findings show that the basic personality traits of extraversion, agreeability, need for arousal and materialism positively affect the need for affiliation. Thereafter, the need for affiliation positively influences the level of identification with the team. The authors discuss the managerial implications of increasing attendance based on the individual personality needs.

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Toward a Better Understanding of College Athletic Donors: What Are the Primary Motives?
Authors: James M. Gladden, Daniel F. Mahoney, Artemisia Apostolopoulou
Abstract: The purpose of the current paper is to help improve our understanding of why people donate money to athletic support groups, which motivations are most prevalent among donors, and how motivations differ across three schools. Four thousand one hundred and thirty-seven responses (from 1,579 athletic support group donors at three universities) to an open-ended question about donor motivation were content analyzed. Results suggest that primary motives include supporting and improving the athletic program, receiving tickets, helping student-athletes, deriving entertainment and enjoyment, supporting and promoting the university (non-athletic programs), receiving membership benefits, repaying past benefits received, helping and enhancing the community, and psychological commitment. Comparisons to past research efforts (and comparisons among the three schools) are discussed and directions for future research are offered.

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Fans vs. Spectators: An Analysis of Those Who Attend Intercollegiate Football Games
Authors: Matthew J. Robinson, Galen T. Trail, Ronald J. Dick, Andrew J. Gillentine
Abstract: During the 2001 college football season more than 40 million individuals attended intercollegiate football games across the four divisions sponsored by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Although it would be easy to classify all of these individuals as either being spectators or fans, that would be inaccurate. Trail, Robinson, Gillentine, and Dick (2003) developed a model based on the relationship between motives and points of attachment that classified attendees as either spectators or fans. The purpose of this study was to use the model to determine how individuals who attend college football games should be classified at the four NCAA Divisions of college football. Data were collected from spectators at games at the four different NCAA college football divisions. A MANOVA was performed on the motive factors and on the points of attachment factors proposed by Trail et al., using the division level as the independent variable. Results indicated that there was some support for the Trail et al. model. In general, Division I attendees have motives and points of attachments that are consistent with what Trail et al. (2003) classified as a fan characteristics. Division III attendees have motives and points of attachment that are consistent with what Trail et al. (2003) classified as spectator characteristics. Division II and I-AA have motives and attachment indicative of both fans and spectators. Discussion of the results and suggestions for future research are presented.

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An Assessment of the Economic Differences Associated With Reclassification to NCAA Division I-AA
Authors: Nathan Tomasini
Abstract: The purpose of the current paper is to help improve our understanding of why people donate money to athletic support groups, which motivations are most prevalent among donors, and how motivations differ across three schools. Four thousand one hundred and thirty-seven responses (from 1,579 athletic support group donors at three universities) to an open-ended question about donor motivation were content analyzed. Results suggest that primary motives include supporting and improving the athletic program, receiving tickets, helping student-athletes, deriving entertainment and enjoyment, supporting and promoting the university (non-athletic programs), receiving membership benefits, repaying past benefits received, helping and enhancing the community, and psychological commitment. Comparisons to past research efforts (and comparisons among the three schools) are discussed and directions for future research are offered.

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