SMQ 11:3

Contents for SMQ Issue 11:3

Action Sports Sponsorship Recognition
Authors: Gregg Bennett
Abstract: Action sports, an emerging genre of individualistic sports, has increased immensely in popularity over the past few years (Petrecca, 2000; Bennett & Henson, 2001). Sponsorship of action sports events has likewise increased rapidly over the last few years, and these sponsorships are prevalent on most televised event broadcasts. Research suggests that there is an expansive and increasing action sports industry (Bennett & Henson, 2001). Several major corporate sponsors have uncovered the benefits of advertising on ESPN, NBC, and others. Advertising research is replete with examples of utilizing intermediate measures to assess sponsorship effectiveness (Ambler & Burne, 1999; Cuneen & Hannan, 1993; Gibson, 1983; Meir, Arthur, Tobin, & Massingham, 1997; Percy & Rossiter, 1997; Pitts, 1998; Stotlar & Johnson, 1989; Turco, 1994;). The literature base on intermediate measures in sport marketing is also well established. Cuneen and Hannan (1993), Sandler and Shani (1993), Stotlar (1993), and Pitts (1998) have provided sport marketing and management practitioners with useful data on intermediate measures utilized by the LPGA, Olympic Games, and Gay Games, respectively. Despite the development of literature on sponsorship effectiveness within the sport industry, there is a relative paucity of original research on the action sports phenomenon. Indeed, a literature review revealed no significant research involving sponsorship and action sports. Thus, an investigation of the effectiveness of action sports sponsorships seems especially warranted and timely. An original, 19- item questionnaire was constructed to measure action sports sponsor and athlete recognition by members of the Generation Y market. Mountain Dew has managed to connect with those surveyed in this particular study through its sponsorship of action sports, while ESPN is clearly the most identifiable action sport network by Generation Y—likely due to the longer track record of the X-Games. On an individual level, Tony Hawk was the most recognizable action sports athlete. These results present sport marketers with important findings on the recognition of sponsors of action sports.

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Review – How to Get Publicity (and make the most of it once you’ve got it)
Authors: David W. Scott
Abstract: a book review of How to Get Publicity (and make the most of it once you’ve got it) by William Parkhurst, published by Harper Collins (2000)

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Case Study – Tara Nott Case Study: Celebrity Endorsements and Image Matching
Authors: Elizabeth Jowdy, Mark McDonald
Abstract:

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Factors Influencing Impulse Buying of Sport Team Licensed Merchandise
Authors: Hyungil H. Kwon, Ketra L. Armstrong
Abstract: Impulse buying broadly refers to the immediate urge to engage in unplanned purchases. Sport consumers may exhibit many of the characteristics that foster a tendency to engage in impulse buying. Further, due to the increased channels of the distribution of sport, sport team licensed merchandise is prominently displayed and distributed in a manner that encourages impulse buying. To examine the impulsive tendencies to purchase sport team licensed merchandise, an exploratory investigation involving a sample of college students (n=145: 48 males and 97 females) was conducted. Multiple regression analyses were employed to ascertain the degree to which shopping enjoyment, time availability, money availability, and level of identification with the respective sport team influenced impulse buying of merchandise displaying the sport team’s logo. The results revealed that the only significant antecedent to impulse buying of sport team licensed merchandise was the students?identification with the university’s sport team. Sport team identification also influenced the amount of money spent on impulsive sport purchases. No gender differences were revealed in terms of impulse buying of sport team licensed merchandise.

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Star Players, Payroll Distribution, and Major League Baseball Attendance
Authors: Dominic H. Rivers, Timothy D. DeSchriver
Abstract: : The purpose of this paper was to develop a demand model that determined if a relationship existed between the variation in team payroll and spectator attendance at Major League Baseball (MLB) games. A secondary purpose was to determine if the presence of star players was related to MLB attendance. Our findings suggest that if a star player does not contribute to an increase in the team’s on-field performance, the player has little influence on attendance. Additionally, the assumption that an increased team payroll will result in additional attendance is usually correct, yet incomplete. While the relationship between a team’s payroll and attendance is positive, the relationship between team payroll variation and attendance is negative. Our findings suggest that, in order to maximize attendance, Major League teams should not devote a high percentage of their salary budget to one or two star players. Instead, teams should distribute their payroll evenly across the 25-man roster. This paper also confirms previous studies that determined that attendance is positively related to recent playoff success and new facilities.

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Location Dependency and Sport Sponsors: A Factor Analytic Study
Authors: Hans Westerbeek
Abstract: Theories explaining the mechanics of sport sponsorship relationships are underdeveloped (Gilbert, 1988; Hoek, Gendall, & West, 1990; Pope, 1998), bolstered by studies lacking systematic methods (Kuzma, Shanklin, & McCally, 1993) and tending toward broad, descriptive, macro-level analysis (Sandler & Shani, 1993). This paper attempts to redress this empirical chasm in a small way by examining an element of the sponsorship relationship. Specifically, this paper explores the importance of one particular mode of sponsorship delivery: the location of a venue containing sponsor affiliations or what has been named location dependency. Location dependency of sport sponsors has been shown to be a pivotal determinant when devising sponsorship proposals or when assessing the attractiveness of a sponsorship opportunity (Westerbeek, 2000). Factor analysis was used to determine if sponsors’ response patterns would deliver a number of constructs that could be related to the concept of location dependency. Factor analysis revealed five factors that principally reinforced the notion of location dependency of sponsorship. T-tests delivered significant differences between location dependent and location independent sponsors on some of the factors. The results of this study suggest that appreciating the concept of location dependency may assist companies in the effective discharge of their sponsorship decisions.

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