IJSF Issue 12:3

Contents for IJSF Issue 12:3

IJFS 12:3
Authors: Robbie Butler and David Butler, James Richard Hill and Peter A. Groothuis, Matthew G. Interis and Naomi J. Taylor, Ruud H. Koning, Jochen Mierau, Thomas Peeters, Sören Dallmeyer, Pamela Wicker, and Christoph Breuer, Julio del Corral, Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez, and José Manuel Sánchez-Santos
Abstract:International Journal of Sport Finance, Volume 12, No. 3, August 2017.

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Fergie Time and the Allocation of Additional Time: Evidence from the English Premier League 2009 to 2013
Authors: Robbie Butler and David Butler
Abstract:This paper examines the impartiality of referee decision making when applying Law 7 of FIFA’s Laws of the Game. We investigate decision making relating to the allocation of additional time for 1,515 English Premier League matches from 2009 to 2013. The research finds no evidence of home favoritism and limited evidence of a bias towards “big” clubs, a phenomenon commonly known as Fergie Time. However, an examination of close matches finds Fergie Time is not present, suggesting its ability to alter tight matches is negligible.

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Is There a Wage Premium or Wage Discrimination For Foreign-Born Players in the NBA?

Authors: James Richard Hill and Peter A. Groothuis
Abstract:The influx of international players into the NBA has led researchers to investigate whether either pay discrimination or a pay premium exists for these new entrants. Previous results have been mixed. Using similar techniques with a longer unbalanced panel dataset (1989–2013) that covers all the years of the previous studies, we test for the robustness of the results. We suggest that discrimination results are quite sensitive to the specifications and techniques used. We find that foreign wage premiums exist only for early foreign entrants and neither pay discrimination nor a wage premium exist for players at the end of our panel.

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Estimating the Non-Market Value of a College Sports Tradition

Authors: Matthew G. Interis and Naomi J. Taylor
Abstract:We conduct the first study to estimate the dollar value of a sports tradition. Using a contingent valuation survey, we estimate the net benefits of ringing cowbells at Mis­sissippi State University football games to be about $1 million per home game. The per-person benefits of the tradition are $25 for non-students and $9 for students who favor the tradition, and the costs are $8 for non-students and $6 for students who op­pose the tradition. Alumni and fans who bring cowbells to games have significantly higher values for the tradition. The tradition is continually under threat of being pro­hibited by the Southeastern Conference (SEC) and the University incurs fines when fans violate the cowbell-ringing rules. Our estimates can be used by the University to compare costs and benefits of preserving the tradition or in current marketing efforts to encourage fans to ring responsibly.

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Guest Editors’ Introduction
Authors: Ruud H. Koning, Jochen Mierau, Thomas Peeters
Abstract:This special issue of the International Journal of Sports Finance (IJSF) features two pa­pers that were presented at the eighth conference of the European Sport Economics Association (ESEA). The conference was hosted by the Department of Economics, Econometrics and Finance at the University of Groningen, in close collaboration with the research school SOM. The conference began August 31, 2016, in the Noordlease Stadium of FC Groningen, and wrapped up September 2. In total, 97 abstracts were submitted for review, and 72 were accepted for presentation. A wide variety of coun­tries were represented by the 148 participants at the conference. As in previous years, colleagues from the United States and Australia attended, as well as a delegation from China.

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Public Expenditure and Sport Participation: An Examination of Direct, Spillover, and Substitution Effects
Authors: Sören Dallmeyer, Pamela Wicker, and Christoph Breuer
Abstract:This study performs a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between various types of government spending and individual sport participation. By combining in­dividual data from the German Socio-Economic Panel with expenditure data of the federal states for the period 2003–2011, direct (i.e., sport facilities, pools, general sport promotion), potential spillover (i.e., education, health, streets, public transport, envi­ronment), and substitution effects (i.e., culture) on regular sport participation are ana­lyzed. The results of probit models reveal positive effects for direct sport-related public expenditure on sport facilities and swimming pools in the same year. While spillover effects could be observed for expenditure on streets and transport infrastructure, sub­stitution effects were not identified. The results remain relatively robust when using three-year averages or relative measures of the expenditure variables. One implication for policy makers is that spillover effects from spending not directly targeted at sport can also facilitate regular sport participation.

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A Country-Level Efficiency Analysis of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio: A Complete Picture
Authors: Julio del Corral, Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez, and José Manuel Sánchez-Santos
Abstract:Studying the performance and efficiency of countries participating in the Olympic Games is a topic of interest in the area of economics and operations research. Com­monly, efficiency in this area has been analyzed using outputs like number of medals, the number of medals weighted by category, and the number of diplomas, while the most common inputs are gross domestic product (GDP) and population. This paper contributes to the literature by analyzing the countries’ efficiencies in the Rio 2016 Summer Olympics with stochastic frontier models. Moreover, this study aims to fill three research gaps in the literature. On the one hand, given that the athletes’ qualifi­cation for the Games is a great achievement itself for many countries, the analysis uses the number of participants as the output. On the other hand, the analysis weights the number of medals in relation to the number of participants in each competition (i.e., two in tennis doubles, 14 in handball). Finally, this paper develops a measure to calcu­late the inefficiency of countries with zero medals, since traditional frontier methods do not consider them.

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