IJSF Issue 11:4

Contents for IJSF Issue 11:4

IJFS 11:4
Authors: Helmut Dietl and Egon Franck, Emelie Värja, Julia Bredtmann, Carsten J. Crede, and Sebastian Otten, Johannes Orlowski and Pamela Wicker, Jaume García, Cristina Muñiz, Plácido Rodríguez and María José Suárez, Claire Baudouin and Stefan Szymanski
Abstract:International Journal of Sport Finance, Volume 11, No. 4, November 2016.

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Guest Editors’ Introduction

Authors: Helmut Dietl and Egon Franck
Abstract:This special sssue contains five papers from the 7th European Sport Economics Association (ESEA) Conference on Sports Economics. This conference was hosted by the Center for Research in Sports Administration (CRSA; http://www.crsa.uzh.ch (link is external)) August 27–28, 2015, at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. On the day prior to the conference, the CRSA organized a PhD course in sport economics. Paul Madden (University of Manchester) held an introductory lecture on theoretical sport economics before Brad Humphreys (West Virginia University) explained various methods for dealing with zeros in empirical data. The former and the current editors of this journal, Rob Simmons (Lancaster University) and Arne Feddersen (University of Southern Denmark), led a roundtable discussion on effective publishing strategies in sport economics. The PhD course was very successful with more than 25 graduate students participating.

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Sports and Local Growth in Sweden: Is a Sports Team Good for Local Economic Growth?
Authors: Emelie Värja
Abstract:This study investigates whether net migration and per capita income growth are affected by successful local soccer or ice hockey teams. Local governments support local professional teams and are often motivated by the alleged positive externalities, which, ultimately, are supposed to enhance the tax base. We estimate spatial panel data models using data from all Swedish municipalities for the 1996–2012 period. Even with this alternative modeling framework, we still find no evidence of a positive relationship between teams in the highest league and the local tax base; we do, however, find indications of a negative effect from ice hockey on average income growth.

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The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance
Authors: Julia Bredtmann, Carsten J. Crede and Sebastian Otten
Abstract:In this article, we propose a new estimation strategy that draws on the variation in the performance between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the effect of gender equality on women’s soccer success. For this, country year fixed effects are used to control for both time-constant and time-variant country specific factors. Our results reveal that within-country differences in our proxies for gender equality explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but have no notable explanatory power for the success of male teams. This suggests that gender equality is an important determinant of female sport success.

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The Monetary Value of Voluntary Coaching: An Output-Based Approach
Authors: Johannes Orlowski and Pamela Wicker
Abstract:This study estimates the monetary value of voluntary coaching in German non-profit sports clubs applying an output-based approach as opposed to previous studies relying on input-based approaches. Using the contingent valuation method, the willingness- to-pay of the beneficiaries (i.e., the club members consuming training sessions) is estimated. Club members across eight different sports were surveyed (n = 1,583). Results show that—depending on the question format—club members place a monetary value of €67.26 (open question), €17.51 (dichotomous choice), and €18.46 (payment ladder) on one hour of voluntary work. Determinants of reporting a positive willingness-to-pay and on the amount of willingness-to-pay are analyzed applying Cragg’s double hurdle model. The results show that the attitude towards the coach, income, and the size of the training group are significantly associated with stated willingness-to-pay. This study contributes to the literature on contingent valuation in sport by providing empirical evidence from the non-profit sector.

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Comparative Analysis of Sports Practice by Types of Activities
Authors: Jaume García, Cristina Muñiz, Plácido Rodríguez and María José Suárez
Abstract:This paper makes a comparative analysis of the determinants of adult sports practice in different types of activities. Specifically, we analyze frequency of participation in walking, individual versus group sports, indoor versus outdoor sports, and sports that require facilities versus sports that do not require them. In the empirical analysis we use the Spanish Time Use Survey 2002–03 and we estimate zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) count data models to explain the frequency of sports participation in the previous four weeks. The covariates included are demographic and socioeconomic factors. We compute individual marginal effects of individual and family characteristics on the expected frequency of participation, on the probability of being a potential participant, and on the expected frequency conditioned on participation. The results show that gender and labor status are significant correlates of participation and frequency in all types of activities. We also find some interesting differences among types of sports.

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Testing the Testers: Do More Tests Deter Athletes from Doping?
Authors: Claire Baudouin and Stefan Szymanski
Abstract:This paper examines whether increasing the frequency of testing deters athletes from doping. Since data is not available to analyze this problem directly, an indirect approach is required. We use the relationship between testing and Olympic performance to infer the relationship between testing and doping. This requires a variety of assumptions, the most important of which is that doping improves Olympic performance. The results suggest that in some sports, such as track & field (athletics) and wrestling, carrying out more tests does deter athletes from taking drugs. In other sports in which doping is believed to be more common, though, there is no evidence of a negative relationship between testing and doping. This is notably the case in cycling. This suggests that for some sports, increasing the frequency of testing may be a simple solution to the problem of doping. In other sports, though, the problem may have deeper roots.

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