IJSF Issue 11:2

Contents for IJSF Issue 11:2

IJFS 11:2
Authors: Quinn A. W. Keefer, John Jasina and Kurt Rotthoff, Antonio Friedman-Soza, Jorge R. Friedman, Domingo H. Pozo, and Carlos F. Yevenes, Grzegorz Kwiatkowski
Abstract:International Journal of Sport Finance, Volume 11, No. 2, May 2016.

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The Impact of the NHL Lockout on County Employment
Authors: John Jasina and Kurt Rotthoff
Abstract:The National Hockey League (NHL) had a lockout that lasted the entire 2004–2005 season. Because this lockout cancelled the season, it provides a unique opportunity to analyze the economic impact on county employment and payroll in the sectors relevant to the sporting world. We test 3- and 4-digit NAICS codes, including Accommodation, Drinking Places, Restaurants, and Spectator Sports. Using the impact found in a county with an NHL team, relative to trends in the surrounding counties, we find no general impact on employment, but we find a decrease in payroll in some sectors.

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Who Attends Sporting Events? Evidence from Mexican Micro Data
Authors: Antonio Friedman-Soza, Jorge R. Friedman, Domingo H. Pozo, and Carlos F. Yevenes
Abstract:Applying probit in Mexican micro data we conclude that sporting event attendance is determined mostly by education, income, gender, employment, marital status, ethnic origin, urbanization, and age. Showing that education is so central in the decision to attend a sporting event in developing countries is perhaps the most distinctive feature of the study; highly educated people are seven times more likely to buy tickets to sporting events than those with little formal education. The data fit information criteria confirms the importance of education. These results reveal yet another mechanism through which education increases the wellbeing of society—by enabling individuals to spend their leisure time attending sporting events rather than exhibiting negative behaviors such as abusive drinking or illegal drug consumption. Household income presents a dichotomy: it is largely irrelevant for 75% of the households and very relevant for the richer ones. Finally, people who classify themselves as indigenous attend significantly fewer sporting events.

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Race and NFL Playing Time
Authors: Quinn A. W. Keefer
Abstract:Using binary variable and decomposition techniques on two distinct datasets, we analyze the effect of race on playing time for linebackers in the National Football League (NFL). We examine both the number of games started in a season and the probability of starting each individual game within a season. The results show black linebackers start approximately one additional game, or 16% more games, in a season than non-black players. Also, the probability of starting a specific game is four to eight percentage points greater for black linebackers. Previous research suggests black linebackers are subject to wage discrimination. Therefore, if omitted variables are responsible for the effect of race on playing time, there is actually more wage discrimination than reported.

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Composition of Event Attendees: A Comparison of Three Small-Scale Sporting Events
Authors: Grzegorz Kwiatkowski
Abstract:This study contributes to the literature on economic impact assessments of sporting events by categorizing attendees of small-scale sporting events based on their potential primary economic stimulus to the host region. Thereby, the research questions driving this study are as follows: (1) What is the composition of event attendees at small-scale sporting events according to their primary economic stimulus to the host region? and (2) How does the composition of event attendees vary between the three considered events? The study builds upon primary data (N = 2,006) gathered at three small-scale sporting events (cycling, windsurfing, and ski jumping) hosted in Northern Europe. The empirical analysis draws on a state-of-the-art framework for economic impact assessments. The results show that the percentage of attendees, whose expenditures result in fresh money influx to a host region, does not exceed 40% for any of the events and heavily depends on the event-specific characteristics.

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