SMQ Issue 21:2

Contents for SMQ Issue 21:2

A Note from the SMA President, p. 67
Authors: Eric C. Schwarz
Abstract: Well, this has been a busy few months planning for the 10th Anniversary Conference, implementing new initiatives, and of course the continued trials and tribulations with the new website.

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Industry Insider: Paul Deighton, pp. 68-69
Authors: Rick Burton and Norm O’Reilly
Abstract: An interview with Paul Deighton, CEO of the London 2012 Summer Olympic Games

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Arrest Record or Openly Gay: The Impact of Athletes’ Personal Lives on Endorser Effectiveness, pp. 70-79
Authors: Heidi M. Parker and Janet S. Fink
Abstract: Many companies use athlete endorsers to help promote brands and sell products, and athletes are paid considerably for allowing companies to marry the athlete’s image and persona with their products and/or services. Thus, understanding what makes an effective endorser is an important question. Grounded in source credibility and match-up hypothesis theory, this study examined how knowledge of an athlete’s prior arrest or knowledge about an athlete’s sexuality would impact perceived source credibility characteristics of attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise, as well as perceptions of endorser-product fit and purchase intentions. Results indicated that being openly gay or having been previously arrested had no impact on source credibility characteristics when compared to heterosexual/non-arrested athletes. Results also revealed trustworthiness, attractiveness, and expertise positively affected product-endorser fit, and further underscore the importance of product-endorser fit on purchase intentions.

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An Antecedent Model of Team Identification in the Context of Professional Soccer, pp. 80-90
Authors: Nicholas D. Theodorakis, Daniel L. Wann, and Stephen Weaver
Abstract: The current investigation examined the interrelationships among overall sport team identification, specific dimensions of team identification, and behavioral intentions. Using an antecedents approach to guide predictions (Dabholkar, Shepherd, & Thorpe, 2000), a model was tested in which overall identification would mediate the relationship between specific dimensions of team identification and behavioral intentions. To test the hypothesized pattern of effects, participants completed a questionnaire packet assessing overall identification via the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (Wann & Branscombe, 1993), specific dimensions of identification assessed via the Team Identification Scale (Dimmock & Grove, 2006; Theodorakis, Dimmock, Wann, & Barlas, 2010), and four items assessing behavioral intentions. A series of regression analyses confirmed the predicted pattern of effects. Specifically, both overall identification and the specific dimensions of identification predicted behavioral loyalty and the dimensions predicted overall identification. However, when the dimensions and overall identification were simultaneously entered as predictors of behavioral loyalty, the results indicated that overall identification fully mediated the relationship between specific dimensions of identification and behavioral loyalty, as the beta scores of the dimensions were reduced to non-significant levels.

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Differentiation of Social Marketing and Cause-Related Marketing in US Professional Sport, pp. 91-103
Authors: Jennifer R. Pharr and Nancy L. Lough
Abstract: Several studies have focused on cause-related sport marketing (CRM), yet few have examined social marketing in sport. The purpose of this study was to show how both are unique strategies employed in sport to achieve corporate social responsibility. A qualitative content analysis was utilized to analyze the outreach programs of the NBA, NFL, NHL, and MLB as described on each website. A directed content analysis was used to categorize outreach programs as CRM, social marketing, or other community outreach based on five variables that differentiate each strategy. Forty three programs were evaluated. Twenty two (51.2%) were categorized as social marketing, eight (18.6%) as CRM, and 13 (30.2%) as other community outreach. Social marketing programs were identified significantly more than CRM. The findings demonstrate how the major leagues have embraced the use of social marketing strategies to demonstrate corporate social responsibility.

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An Empirical Examination of University Intercollegiate Athletic Expenditures, pp. 104-114
Authors: Jeffrey L. Stinson, Adam Marquardt, and Joshua Chandley
Abstract: To date, little empirical work has examined the institutional returns associated with athletic program investments. While intangible brand effects are commonly cited, such as athletics serving as the perceptual “front porch” of the institution, direct examination of the effects of athletic programs has often been narrow in scope. Within this study, we assess the contributions of investment in athletics as compared to other areas of institutional investment, on important institutional outcomes. Data for the study was collected from two datasets, the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) and the Equity in Athletics dataset. Fixed effects models for NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision schools were constructed to assess the return on investment relative to total institutional revenues, gift revenues, student application rates, and student graduation rates. Findings reveal that for every dollar of athletic expenditure per FTE $2.12 of core revenues per FTE, $.24 in gift revenues per FTE, and a .165% increase in graduation rates were produced.

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The Ongoing Fight for the Fighting Sioux, pp. 115-118
Authors: Haylee Uecker Mercado and John Grady
Abstract: Of the numerous civil rights and social justice issues prevalent within the discourse of the United State , use of Native American mascots and imagery by college and professional athletic teams continues to be a divisive issue within and beyond sport. There are many historical, legal, political, economic, and sociological factors that have been used to explain the origins of Native American team monikers and why they have prevailed over time. There are strong views both in favor of retaining and eliminating this practice, and continued use of team names, mascots, and imagery remains a topic of much debate. Sport management scholars, in particular, have debated the legal options available to schools facing controversy over continued use of Native American team names, mascots, and imagery (Claussen, 1996; Moushegian, 2006; Staurowsky, 2007).

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The Robins Center: Is Less More?, p. 119-129
Authors: John Richardson and Randle D. Raggio
Abstract: The Robins Center at the University of Richmond, home of Richmond’s men’s and women’s basketball teams, had hosted a Presidential debate in 1992, but at 38 years old it was time for a major renovation. In mid-March 2011, based on the success of the men’s basketball program over the past two seasons, a generous donor had agreed to contribute the total amount needed to renovate the Robins Center.

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