SMQ Issue 19:1

Contents for SMQ Issue 19:1

Editor’s Note, p. 3
Authors: Nancy Lough
Abstract: As the incoming Editor for Sport Marketing Quarterly (SMQ), I want to begin by thanking those who have brought the journal to this point. Matthew Shank served us well by raising the standards, improving the rigor, and maintaining a responsive review process. Similarly, each of the previous editors, reviewers, and contributors must be thanked for their leadership and commitment to produce the quality scholarly outlet that SMQ has become. As we near the 20-year mark the challenge to “be the journal of choice for authors who wish to create and disseminate intellectual contributions in the field of sport marketing and for practitioners who seek to apply this knowledge to the sport industry” remains the foundation for future directions and strategic decisions.

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Industry Insider: Sport Marketing Forecast, pp. 4-7
Authors: Jim Kadlecek
Abstract: Jim Kadlecek interviewed five industry leaders and asked them to consider five areas of sport marketing and what they expect in 2010.

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Brand Personality in Sport: Dimension Analysis and General Scale Development, pp. 8-16
Authors: Jessica R. Braunstein and Stephen D. Ross
Abstract: The idea of brand personality in sport (BPS) has become a popular topic of study among academicians in the sport management field. While the conceptualization and operationalization of the construct has been heavily discussed, establishing a valid and reliable assessment tool has yet to be achieved. The current study reexamines the general brand personality (BP) dimensions and looks to apply them to the unique characteristics in sport. The scale developed in the current study establishes a baseline tool in which future research can be conducted. The results provide initial levels of validity and reliability, making suggestions as to the further development of the sport brand personality (BPS) construct. These findings support previous literature, yet provide a number of suggestions for future theoretical development.

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A New Approach to Measure Perceived Brand Personality Associations Among Consumers, pp. 17-24
Authors: Bob Heere
Abstract: Brand personality research has made extensive use of factor modeling to grasp the dimensions of brand personality. Many scholars have adapted this technique to capture the brand personality of an organization. It is argued in this study that letting consumers associate a brand with a personality through factor modeling is flawed and anthropomorphic in nature. Therefore, the author proposes a different technique to measure these associations, by asking managers about what personality associations they implement while marketing their brand. Based on their responses, a list of associations was compiled and sent out to their fans, to measure the effectiveness of the organization to portray the brand associations. Results indicate that by implementing this strategy managers are able to grasp a more precise concept of the perceived personality associations of the brand. In addition, the strategy provided managers with more in-depth information on their brand by measuring the brands’ importance and representativeness among their consumers.

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Personality Fit in NASCAR: An Evaluation of Driver-Sponsor Congruence and the Impact on Sponsorship Effectiveness Outcomes, pp. 25-35
Authors: Windy Dees, Gregg Bennett, and Mauricio Ferreira
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if personality fit between NASCAR (National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing) drivers and their major sponsors affects the sponsorship outcomes of consumer attitudes toward the sponsor, attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intentions. Fan identification and product involvement were examined as moderators between personality fit and the sponsorship outcomes. The respondents (N=347) in this study were attendees at the NASCAR Samsung 500. Data analyses included a factor analysis, descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and hierarchical moderated regression analyses. Results indicated that the sample was predominantly male (58%), Caucasian (82%), and married (62%). Three personality fit dimensions were present including: (1) Excitement/Ruggedness, (2) Competence/Sophistication, and (3) Sincerity. Personality fit on all dimensions had a positive effect on the dependent variables. Fan identification and product involvement had significant direct effects on the dependent variables, but had only a slight moderating effect on personality fit and attitude toward the sponsor.

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Intercollegiate Athletics and Institutional Fundraising: A Meta-Analysis, pp. 36-47
Authors: J. Michael Martinez, Jeffrey. L. Stinson, Minsoo Kang and Colby B. Jubenville
Abstract: After nearly 30 years of research, the disparate findings of studies examining the influence of intercollegiate athletics on private, individual giving to higher education institutions have failed to generate generalizable knowledge. The current study examined all available empirical studies conducted between 1976 and 2008 on this topic. Meta-analysis results indicate that intercollegiate athletics does have a small, but statistically significant, effect on giving. Follow-up analysis revealed four significant moderators on the strength of the intercollegiate athletic-private giving relationship: the gift target (i.e., athletic vs. academic programs), the alumni status of the donor, the level of NCAA membership, and whether or not the institution competes in football. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.

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New Life Art Decision Breathes New Life Into Artist’s First Amendment Rights, pp. 48-50
Authors: John Grady
Abstract: In November 2009, the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Alabama issued a ruling on motions for summary judgment and declaratory judgment in the long dormant case of the University of Alabama Board of Trustees v. New Life Art (2009). The highly publicized lawsuit, initially filed in 2005, pitted sports artist Daniel Moore against his alma mater, the University of Alabama (Grady, 2005). The case involves Moore’s art prints depicting Crimson Tide football players playing against rival teams. The art work features the player uniforms as well as the well-recognized school colors of the University of Alabama. The university asserted trademark protection of the uniforms and colors and insisted Moore needed a license to use these unregistered trademarks in the crimson and white color scheme and team uniforms in his art work. Moore defended against these claims by arguing that he had a First Amendment right of free expression to include these aspects in his depictions of Alabama football and, therefore, argued that he did not need a license from the university.

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The Impact of Ethnic Diversity on the Ladies Professional Golf Association: A Case Study of Anheuser-Busch Sponsorship Objectives and Strategies, pp. 51-57
Authors: J. Andrew Choi
Abstract: Between January 2001 and November 2009, players of Asian descent won nearly 30% of the 287 LPGA-sanctioned tournaments held during the period. By contrast, only 15 years ago (in 1995), an Asian player won only one of the 37 LPGA tournaments held that year (Ladies Professional Golf Association [LPGA], 2009). Clearly, a new generation of golfers has significantly increased the ethnic diversity of the LPGA and its tournament winners. This study investigated whether and how ethnic diversity in the LPGA has influenced the objectives and strategies of LPGA sponsorship decisions for the Anheuser-Busch Company (A-B). This research included 11 semi-structured interviews and two observations at A-B events as a participant. Multiple sources of evidence were collected and analyzed through categorical or “thematic” analysis: interview transcripts, field notes, A-B business documents, and physical artifacts. “Selling more beer,” “opportunity,” and “the best competition available” emerged as key themes in my findings. The increasing ethnic diversity of the LPGA through the ascendance of Asian players clearly impacted A-B and its sponsorship objectives and strategies. Contrary to what some have feared about language or cultural barriers as detriments to LPGA sponsorship, A-B expertly utilized the LPGA’s growing diversity for its own competitive advantage through market-driven and awareness-driven goals in its sponsorship decisions.

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